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7th Science Birds

Chapter 8- Effie Subardoe

Aves The class birds are in
Plumage Feathers
Avian partaining to birds
To reduce weight, instead of teeth and jawbones birds have ________ ______ made of _______, reinforced by lightweight bony struts. Toothless bills, keratin.
Unlike the solid bones of most other animals, bird bones are usually hollow and strengthened by internal ______ _______ like that of a steel girder. cross bracing
Andean condor The largest flying bird
What characteristics do all members of the class Aves share? Bipdal [two-legged], warmblood, vertebrates,feathers, scally legs, and wings
Ornithologists Scientists who study birds
Keel A very strong sternum with a large ridge
Clavicles Collarbones
The clavicles of a bird are fused together, forming the ___________. Furcula [wishbone]
The bird's "thumb" bones support the _____. Alula, a retractable group of feathers at the front of the wing.
The "______" bones support the feather on the wing tips. finger
Humerus Upper "arm" bone
Ulna and Radius Lower "arm" bone
The ________ of flying birds are engineered to meet the power demands of flight. Muscles
Pectorals Flight muscles that correspond to the muscles of the chest
Pectoralis major The larger two of the four pectoral muscles
By using the ________ to raise the wings, God eliminated the need for large, strong back muscles, keeping their weight low. Pectorals
What do birds do instead of using a diaphragm? Birds pump air through the lungs as chestm uscles expand and contract the thoractic cavity
A bird's four chambered heart circulates blood in a pattern similar to what? Humans and mammals.
Gizzard Grinds food, making it easier for the intestine to absorb it.
Crop A storage sack in the esophagus.
Do birds store much solid or liquid waste in their bodies? NO!
A bird inhales and exhales how many times for each breath of air through its repiratory system? Twice
Of all of God's creations, birds have the best _________. Eyesight
Monocular vision Has a wide field of vision for detecting danger.
Binocular vision Allows a narrow field of vision for spotting prey.
The bird's wings are only ______ _________ for the flight feathers. narrow supports
Where are the three basic type of flight feathers found? Primary-extend from the bird's "hand" to the tips of its wings. Secondary-extend form the back of the ulna;Tertiary-Overlap the secondary flight featheres nearest the bird's body
Flight feathers. Provide birds with the necessary wing shape for flight; special contour feathers.
Name three basic type of flight feathers. Primary, Secondary, and tertiary
Contour feathers. Strong feather found on the bird's body wings, and tail. Aids the bird in streamlining.
Name three general types of feather. Contour, flight, insulation.
Insulation feahters down feathers
Down feathers Soft, fluffy feathers close to the bird's body that provide excellent insulation withoug adding much weight.
Each feather has a shaft. What is a shaft? A shaft is the hard, hollow "backbone" of the feather
Barbs Attached to the shaft are thousands of individual projections; Barbs and contour feathers are "zipped" together by tiny jooks cal
Barbs and contour feathers are "zipped" together by tiny hooks called _________. barbules
Feathers, which are made of keratin, grow from _________ in the bird's skin. Follicles
Preen groom
Preen gland Produces oil that helps condition and waterproof the feathers
________ ________ are some of the best gliders. Soaring seabirds
Instincts Built in knowledge you do not have to learrn
Hover To remain stationary in the air
Intermittent flight Alternate flapping with gliding or coasting
Gliding The simpilest kind of flight; usees minimal energy
Some Gliders use hot air, or __________, to gain altitude without expending energy. thermals
Soaring When a bird glides within a thermal to gain altitude
What surprising activity is against the law in the United States? To collect feathers belonging to most species. (Or other bird parts)
Powered flight Flapping flight; Bird fly by continually flapping its wings
The most strenuous part of a bird's flight is _________. Takeoff
Molt When a bird replaces its old, broke, or missing feathers as new ones and grown
Name three reasons birds call. To attract their mates, to warn other birds of danger, and to announce that food is available.
Dusting When birds take a dust bath
Birds take water baths to clean their skin and feathers of ____, ________, and ________ body oils. Dust, parasites, excess
Visual Displays "Body language" Birds use this to communicate.
What is anting's purpose? Exactly why some birds ant is unknown; it is guessed that acid on the ants rids the bird of parasites or skin irritation caused by the growth of new feathers
Anting is most often practiced a bird is _______. molting
Mobbing When flocks of small birds attack a large predatory bird; this alerts other birds of the predator's presence and distracts the large bird from the eggs. May even kill the big bird
Ground nesting birds usually attempt to ____ _______ ____ ____ ______ instead of fighting them. lure birds from the nest
Anting When birds rub ants on its plumage or sit in the dirt and allow ants to crawl over their featheres
Rodent running When a bird nesting in thick grass sneaks away from the nest when a predator is near that draws attention to itself by screeching and running around then sneaks back to the nest after the preadotr is distracted
Flock To gather in large groups, especially just before breading season
Migration generally occurs in the ______ and _____, along routes that run north and south Fall,winter
Migration The regular ( usually yearly) movement of animals between to habitats
Altitudinal migration When birds simply move to another altitude instead of climate on the splope of a mountain or mountain range
Flyaways Routes birds take when they migrate
Most male birds perform ___________ __________ to attract a mate. courtship rituals
Egg A complex package designed to nurture and protect the developing bird
Germinal spot Where the embryo will develop
High speed diving wings Narrow
What type of wings are needed for maneuvering in close quarters? Short and broad
A bird's tail shape is determined by the _____ ___ ______ and ______ ________ for which the bird is _______. Type of flight, habitat, designed
Fast, agile flapping flight needs what type of wings? Tapered wings
Scrapea Scooped out hollow nest on the ground
Incubation The keeping of warm eggs for proper development
Shell An eggs thick, outermost layer
Shell membranes Made of keratin; separate at one end to form an air filled chamber
Gliding wings Long and Narrow
Soaring wing Large and broad
Hovering wings Short and tapered
Chalaza A twisted cord thaat holds the yolk body; allows the germinal spot to remain uprighht
Yolk body The large egg cell produced by the mother bird's ovary
Yolk Contained by the yolk body; A nutrient rich fluid for the developing chick
Albumen Egg white
Brood patch An area on a bird's underside that is withouht feathers so therefore allows the heat form the mother birds body to be transferred to the developing egg
The shape of a bird's wing depend on ___ and ____ it is _______ to fly. how,where,designed
God uniquely designed uniquely designed bills for the ____ ___ ____ ____ ______. the kind of food a bird enjoys
Seed eating birds have ______, ______ __ _____ bills short,stoud,seed eating
Bills for spearing fish Piercing bills
Bills for hunting birds that feed on terrestrial vertebrates; The upper mandible extends beyond the lower mandible and hook downward in front of it; Tearing bills
Large, colorful bills with serrrated edges Fruit-slicing bills
Perching feet Have three forward toes and one hind toe
Grasping feet Similar to perching feet but have talons
Talons Pointed claws
Scratching feet Similiar to perching feet
Mobility on the ground or in the water depends on what? The foot design given by God
Field marks Various colros, patters, and markings characterstic of a particular bird species
Appearce of birds can vary based on _____, ____ and ____ ___ _____. Gender,age,time of year
Name the six simpler categories of birds Perching, birds of prey, water, game, tropical, and flightless birds.
Perching bird Include songbirds, wrens, and similar species.
Most perching birds are equipped with ______ _____. perching feet
Altricial When a hatched bird is featherless and helpless
The bee humming bird The smallest of all birds
Birds of prey [raptors] Distinguished by their ability to hunt by snatching prey with grasping feet
Peregrine falcon The world's fastest bird
Diving When a bird glides down at a very steep angle
Falconry Hunting using trained falcons or hawks
Water birds Include swimming birds like waterfowl, pelicans,flamingos and gulls.
Waterfowl Ducks, geese, and swans
Ducks Short necked waterfowl that eat in a variety of ways
Geese Larger than ducks and have larger necks
Swans Have longer necks than both ducks and geese
Pelicans have a unique throat pouch that they use to catch fish
Game birds Include many birds that either or or have been hunted for food and other, often edible, birds with similar anatomy
Except for doves, pigeons, and a few other species, game birds fly ____ ____ and ______ ____ ___ _______. very little, nest on the ground
Megapodes A group of game birds that are the only birds in the world not to provide any parental care to their young
Tropical birds Live in the warm regions near the equator
Many tropical birds can be classified in _____ _______. other groups
Parrots Include macaws, parakeets, lorikeets, lovebirds, cockatoos, and budgerigars.
Trogons A group of brightly-colored tropical birds that eat insects and fruit
Flightless birds Include ostriches, emus kiwis, rheas, and cassowaries.
Flightless bird do not have a _____ on the sternum; because of this their pectoral muscles aren't large enough to fly. Keel
Emperor and Adelie penguin The only penguins that actually live in Antarctica year round.
Penguins Flightless bird
Created by: nelsonclan