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Genetics Vocabulary

Allele One of a pair of genes that appear at a particular location on a particular chromosome and control the same characteristic, such as eye color or hair color.
Chromosome A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found that carries genetic information in the form of genes.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosome and the carrier of genetic information.
Dominance Situation in which one allele is expressed over a second allele.
Gene A portion of a DNA molecule that serves as the basic unit of heredity.
Genotype The genetic makeup of an individual organism.
Genetic Crossing The deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent.
Mitosis Asexual cell division where one parent cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells
Heterozygous A pair of genes where one allele is dominant and one allele is recessive.
Homozygous A pair of genes where both alleles are dominant or both are recessive.
Hybrid An animal or plant resulting from a cross between genetically unlike individuals.
Independent Assortment Mendel's law that states that traits are transmitted to offspring independently of one another.
Phenotype The physical appearance of an organism as distinguished from its genetic makeup.
Punnett Square A type of grid that can indicate all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross.
Recessive An allele whose phenotype is masked when paired with a dominant allele.
Segregation Mendel's law that states that organisms inherit one allele for each trait from each parent due to allele pairs separating during gamete production.
Meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell
Created by: bardwelt