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Ch. 15 Vocabulary

15.1 Nutrient the substances in food that provide the raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all essential processes.
Calorie the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius.
Carbohydrate nutrients composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen are a major source of energy.
Glucose the major source of energy for your body's cells.
Fat energy-containing nutrients that are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
protein nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Amino acid small units that make up proteins.
Vitamin helper molecules.
Mineral nutrients that are not made by living things.
Food Guide Pyramid a diagram that helps people plan a healthy diet.
Percent Daily Value how the nutritional content of one serving fits into the recommended.
Dietary reference Intakes guidelines that show the amounts of nutrients that are needed every day.
15.2 Digestion the process by which your body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules.
Absorption the process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system
Saliva the fluid released when your mouth waters
enzyme proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body.
epiglottis a flap of tissue that moves when you swallow.
esophagus a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
mucus a thick slippery substance produced by the body.
peristalsis involuntary waves of muscle contraction.
stomach a J-shaped, muscular pouch located in the abdomen.
15.3 small intestine the part of the digestive system where most chemical digestion takes place.
liver the largest organ inside the body.
bile a substance that breaks up fat particles.
gall bladder the organ that stores bile.
pancreas a triangular organ that lies between the stomach.
villus millions of tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the surface.
large intestine the last section of the digestive system.
rectum a short tube where the waste material is compresses into a silof form.
anus a muscular opening at the end of the rectum.
Created by: s730496