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science: Genetics

Names and deifintions of words

Gene A section of a chromosome (0r D.N.A ) which codes for a protein.
Chromosome A collection of genes. Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of a cell.
D.N.A (Deoxyribonucleic acid). This molecule is what chromosomes are made of. It can replicate (make copies of itself).
Alleles Alternative forms of a gene. There are often dominant and recessive alleles for the same gene.
Heterozygous A pair of alleles where there is a dominant and a recessive allele.
Homozygous A pair of alleles where either both genes are recessive or both genes are dominant.
Dominant A gene whose characteristic always appears even if only one copy is inherited.
Recessive A gene whose characteristic only appears if copies are inherited from both parents.
Mutation A ‘mistake’ in a gene or chromosome which usually occurs when it replicates.
Gamete These are reproductive cells. They contain half the number of chromosomes of a body cell. Animal gametes are egg and sperm, plant gametes are pollen and ovule.
Mitosis This type of cell division occurs in body cells. The chromosomes replicate so that the two new cells both have the same genetic composition as the original cell.
Meiosis This type of cell division produces gametes. The chromosomes divide so that each new cell has half the number of the original cell.
Genotype . The genes that an individual has
Phenotype The characteristics that an individual has as a result of their genes.
Asexual reproduction This is reproduction with only one parent. The offspring are clones of their parent.
Sexual reproduction Reproduction where there are two parents and there is genetic recombination.
Clone Clones are individuals with the same genetic make up. Identical twins are clones
Continuous variation A characteristic which shows a continuous range in a population e.g height
Discontinuous variation A characteristic which shows distinct groups in a population e.g blood groups.
Created by: Stephanie.oliver