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science vocab

What is uniformitarianism? The principle that geologic processes that occurred in the past can be explained by current geologic processes
Layers of rock called ____ , show the sequence of events that took place in the past. Strata
What rocks are most studied? Sedimentary rocks
The boundary between two beds are called what? bedding plane
The principle is a sedimentary rock layer that is older than the one above it is called law of ____ Superposition
The principle that a fault or intrusion is younger than the layers it cuts through is called the law of ______ cross cutting
How long has the earth been around? 4.6 billion years
The absolute age of a rock layer is its ______ age. numeric
Using the rate of ____ to determine absolute age would be less accurate for a surface feature such as the grand canyon which is millions of years old. Erosion
In general about 30 cm of sedimentary rock are ____ over a period of 1,000 years. deposited
Some sedimentary rock layers show annual layers called ___ varves
What layer is composed of darker , finer grains ? Winter
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are called _____. isotopes
The original radioactive isotope is called the ____ isotope. Parent
The half-life is the time required for half of a radioactive sample to break down by decay to form the ______ isotope. Daughter
What is the half-life of Uranium-238? 4.5 billion years
The ages of wood, bones, shells, and other organic remains embedded in rock can be determined through_______ dating Carbon-14
The scientific study of fossils is called ____ Paleontology
Some insects become fossilized in hardened tree sap called ____ Amber
Organisms buried in ____ do not decay, because bacteria do not survive such low temperatures. Frozen soil, ice
When minerals in groundwater percolate through buried organic matter, the result is nearly perfect mineral replica of the object. This process is called _____. Petrification
A fossil residue of a leaf that makes a shadow on sedimentary rock is called a ___. Carbon films
Fossilized dung or waste is from an animal is called a coprolites
The stones from the digestive tracts of dinosaurs are called __ Gastrolittes
Fossilized tracks borings or burrows are called ____ fossils Trace
Fossils that occur only in rock layers of particular geologic age are called ___ fossils. index
Created by: shelberrzz