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environmental scienc

plant agriculture test

mixture of minerals and partially decomposed organic matter soil
process of breaking down rock erosion
plants grown in spaced rows row crops
plants that completely cover the soil cover crops
rows of trees reducing wind erosion windbreaks
not enough calories in a daily diet undernutrition
lacking in specific macro or micro nutrition malnutrition
huge population undernourished (not enough to eat) famine
application of water to soil irrigation
how much water makes it to the plants roots efficiency (water)
unwanted plants or animals that reduce crop yield biological pests
chemicals that kill or control populations of biological pests pesticides
forming high and higher concentrations in organisms over a long period of exposure bioaccumulation
produced with ought any synthetic pesticides or fertilizer organic foods
method of growing plants without the use of soil hydroponics
implant DNA into crops from other unrelated species that are resistant Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)
The early European settlers refer to the western United States plains as desert. What kind of ecosystem was actually there? Why did they have such a difficult time farming it? temperate grassland; the iron plows couldn't cut through it, not enough rain
In the years leading up to the Dust Bowl, people were operating on a theory called "Rain Follows the Plow". Explain this theory. What is the problem with it? believed that the wet period was the result of over planting
What are the three major food staples? wheat, corn, and rice
ll soil begins as rock. Describe two ways that rock can be broken. physical weathering - rock broken apart by wind and water; chemical weathering - when acid rain breaks it apart
Why is grassland soil so ideal for farming, compared to forest soil? have a much deeper A horizon, the roots can grow deeper and have more available nutrients
Rank the four different types of water erosion by strength, starting with the least severe splash, sheet, rill, gully
What type of erosion is more likely to occur in arid areas, and was behind the Midwest United States dust storms of the 1930s? wind erosion
contour plowing plant crops along the slope of the land rather than straight up and down
strip cropping alternates row crops with cover crops so no bare soil is exposed
terracing cut steps into a series of flattened terraces
What are the three macronutrients? Carbohydrates, Lipids (fats), and proteins
give an example of a food source that contains it. Which macronutrient has the most calories? Carbohydrates - bread, Lipids - milk (most calories), Proteins - meat
These three disorders are caused by malnourishment. What nutrient is missing to cause each? What effect or symptoms are caused by these disorders? Kwashiorkor - caused by insufficient porting consumption (fluid imbalance in the digestive system causes a big stomach); Anemia - decrease in ability of blood to transport oxygen (lack of iron); Goiter - enlargement of thyroid gland (lack of iodine)
What is the difference between subsistence agriculture and mono culturing? subsistence - supports families by planting with different crops mono culturing - only grows one crop at a time to sell to the mass market
Furrow Irrigation delivers large amounts of water through channels that run through the field; efficiency: 40-60%
Drip Irrigation uses porous tubes above or below the ground that gradually deliver water to roots of individual plants; efficiency: 90-95%
Center-Pivot Irrigation piece of equipment that rotates around a single point; efficiency: 80%
What is the difference between inorganic and organic fertilizer? inorganic - synthetically made from mixed minerals organic - derived from plant and animal matter
Explain how using crop rotation and legumes could help reduce the need for applying fertilizer every year? replenish nitrogen levels
Why has energy use increased in farming since the Green Revolution? We are using more of it (energy)
What is the difference between first and second generation pesticides? 1st - derived from (naturally) occurring sources; 2nd - synthetically
If a pesticide bioaccumulates, what level of a food chain is it most likely to affect? top level, EX: wolf
The "Dirty Dozen"" is a list of produce that is more likely to have pesticide residue. What do these fruits and vegetables have in common? you don't peel them
If a farmer uses an integrated pest management system, what strategies will they use first, before resorting to chemical pesticides? the natural route
Give one example of a GMO. What trait has been inserted into it? corn or soy beans - resist round up
Created by: a.allsup