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genetics test vocab

selective breeding the intentional mating of two animals in an attempt to produce offspring with desirable characteristics or for the elimination of a trait
inbreeding the mating of closely related individuals, as cousins, sire-daughter, brother-sister, or self-fertilized plants, which tends to increase the number of individuals that are homozygous for a trait and therefore increases the appearance of recessive traits.
hybridization to breed or cause the production of (a hybrid).
cloning the process of producing a clone
genetic engineering the development and application of scientific methods, procedures, and technologies that permit direct manipulation of genetic material in order to alter the hereditary traits of a cell, organism, or population.
DNA fingerprinting the use of a DNA probe for the identification of an individual, as for the matching of genes from a forensic sample with those of a criminal suspect.
gene the basic physical unit of heredity; a linear sequence of nucleotides along a segment of DNA that provides the coded instructions for synthesis of RNA, which, when translated into protein, leads to the expression of hereditary character.
chromosome any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order: the human species has 23 pairs, designated 1 to 22 in order of decreasing size and X and Y for the female and male sex chromosomes respectively
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid/ the set of nongenetic traits, qualities, or features that characterize a person or thing
nucleotide any of a group of molecules that, when linked together, form the building blocks of DNA
nitrogen bases (A, T, C, G) Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine,
double helix the spiral arrangement of the two complementary strands of DNA.
DNA replication DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule
mutation a sudden departure from the parent type in one or more heritable characteristics, caused by a change in a gene or a chromosome.
sex chromosome a chromosome, differing in shape or function from other chromosomes, that determines the sex of an individual
sex-linked traits
Created by: 100006027968027