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Vocabulary List III

Third Nine Weeks

Cell membrane a thin, flexible covering that protects the inside of all cells from the environment outside the cell, it allows for passage of certain substances in and out of the cell
Chloroplast the part of the plant cell that contains chlorophyll and allow the cell to absorb energy from sunlight and makes glucose
Cytoplasm a fluid inside a cell that contains salts and other molecules. It provides a water environment in which cell processes take place
Golgi apparatus prepares proteins for their specific jobs and packages them into vesicles
Mitochondrion this is the powerhouse of the cell that provides all the energy the cell needs for its different functions. It releases energy from ATP molecules.
Ribosome makes proteins and found in the cytoplasm of a cell
Rough endoplasmic reticulum provides a site for making proteins
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum makes lipids and helps remove harmful substances from the cell
Vacuole stores food, water and waste materials. It is the largest organelle in plants.
Nucleus found in most eukaryotic cells that direct cell activities and contains genetic information stored in DNA
Nuclear envelope the name of the two membranes surrounding the nucleus. The pores in this structure allow materials to pass into and out of the cell.
Cytoskeleton a network of threadlike proteins that are joined together. This is the framework that gives the cell its shape.
Flagella long, tail like appendages that whip back and forth and are used for movement
Cilia short, hair like structures used to move a cell or move substance away from a cell
Prokaryotic cells the genetic material is not surrounded by a membrane. This means that these cells DO NOT HAVE A NUCLEUS. They do not have many other cells parts and are often unicellular organisms.
Eukaryotic Cells the genetic material is surrounded by a membrane. This means that these cells HAVE A NUCLEUS. These cells are larger than prokaryotic cells. These cells have many other structures in them.
Organelle different parts that make up a Eukaryotic cell. Each has it’s own purpose and function.
Cell wall a stiff structure found outside of the cell membrane only in plant cells. Its purpose is to protect the cell and give it shape.
Proteins a macromolecule made of long chains of amino acid molecules
Carbohydrates made up of one or more chain of a sugar molecule. Its main job is to store energy (Ex. Bread)
Macromolecule large molecules that form when smaller molecules are joined together
Lipid a large, macromolecule that does not dissolve in water. They are used as a protective barrier in cell membranes as well as energy storage. (Ex. Cholesterol)
Nucleic acid macromolecules that form when long chains of molecules called nucleotides join together. This is where genetic information is stored. The two kinds are RNA and DNA.
Cell Theory A theory that states that all living things are made of one or more cells, the cell is the smallest unit of life, all cells come from preexisting cells.
Binomial nomenclature a naming system that gives each organism a two word scientific name
Species a group of organisms that have similar traits and are able to reproduce
Genus a group of similar species-the first word used in binomial nomenclature
Dichotomous key a series of descriptions arranged in pairs that lead the user to the identification of an unknown organism
Cladogram a branched diagram that shows the relationships among organisms, including common ancestors.
Natural selection theory developed by Darwin that states that organisms with traits best suited to their environment are most likely to survive and reproduce
Variation a small change in a trait that makes an individual slightly different from the other members of its species.
Mutation a change in a gene
Adaptation an inherited trait that increases an organism’s chance of surviving and reproducing in a particular environment.
Selective breeding a deliberate breeding of plants or animals for desired results
Structure the way in which the parts are organized or arranged into whole
Function the job that something is designed to do
Created by: FJHScience