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axis The imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and the North and South poles
rotation The spinning motion of a planet around its axis
revolution The movement of one object around another object
orbit The path of an object as it revolves around another object in space
day Each 24 hour cycle of day and night
astronomy The study of the moon, stars and other objects in space
What causes day and night? Earth's rotation on its axis
Why does Earth have seasons? The Earth's axis is tilted as it moves around the sun
solstice The 2 days of the year when the sun is overhead at 23.5 degrees North or South (longest or shortest days of the year)
equinox Days and nights are exactly the same length because neither hemisphere is tilted away from the sun
How is the Northern Hemisphere titled in relation to the sun when it is summer? The Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards to the sun
Why is it warmer near the equator? At the equator sunlight hits Earth's surface directly and is less spread out.
How does the moon move? The moon revolves around the Earth and rotates on its own axis.
What causes the different phases of the moon? The positions of the sun, moon, and Earth and how they line up.
How often does the moon go through a whole set of phases? Around once a month or each time the moon revolves aroudn the Earth
Describe a New Moon The side of the moon facing Earth is dark
Describe a First quarter Half of the side of the moon facing Earth is lighted
Describe a Full Moon All of the moon facing Earth is lighted
Describe a Third quarter Half of the side of the moon facing Earth is lighted
When does an eclipse occur? When the moon's shadow hits Earth or Earth's shadow hits the moon
What is a solar eclipse? When the moon blocks sunlight from reaching Earth
What is a lunar eclipse? When Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon.
What is the arrangement of the Earth, moon, and sun during a lunar eclipse? Earth is directly between the moon and the sun.
What are tides? The rise and fall of ocean levels.
Why do tides occur? Differences in how much the moon pulls on different part of the Earth (gravity)
Describe the moon surface. It contains craters, highlands and maria
nuclear fusion the process by which nuclei of small atoms combine to form a new, more massive nucleus; the process releases energy
radiative zone the region of the sun’s interior in which energy moves through waves or particles
convective zone the region of the sun’s interior in which energy is carried upward by circulation of matter
photosphere the visible surface of the sun
chromosphere thin layer of the sun that glows a reddish color during eclipses
corona the outermost layer of the sun’s atmosphere
ions electrically charged particles
spectrum the complete range of colors in the rainbow, from short wavelengths (blue) to long wavelengths (red)
core the center of the sun
solar wind the flow of electrically-charged particles from the sun into the rest of the solar system
Venus and Earth are called twins. Why? because they are so close in size and distance.
Mars is also known as the "______ planet" the RED planet
Jupiter rotates faster than any other planet...so fast that it's day is only how many earth hours long? 10, 15, 18 10
How long would it take to get to Mars from earth? 1 month, 1 year, 5 years 1 year
Venus spins in the opposite direction of 7 of the other planets. True or False? TRUE
Jupiter is how many times larger than the earth? 5, 11,14 11
One day (complete rotation) for Venus is earths' ____ days. 243,143,43 243 days
What planet is 4th from the sun? Mars
How long does it take for Jupiter to orbit around the sun (for it's 1 year)? 3, 12,20 Earth years 12 Earth years
What planet is 8th from the sun? Neptune
What planet is 7th from the sun? Uranus
What planet is 6th from the sun? Saturn
What former planet is 9th from the sun? Pluto
While learning about Mars thru space probes, what is there strong evidence of having existed once upon the planet's surface and may still exist under it's outer layers?. Water because there are channels, valleys, and gullies on the planet's surface
What planet is 3rd from the sun? Earth
What are Mars' temperatures near it's poles? -100, -150, -195 degress F as low as about -195 degrees F near the poles in the winter
What planet is 2nd from the sun? Venus
What planet is 5th from the sun? Jupiter
What are Saturns' rings made of ? Rocks and Ice
How many earth days makes one orbit around the sun (1 YEAR) on Mars? 187,687, 987 687 Earth days
How hot is Venus? 870 degrees F - hotest planet in solar system
Why is Mars a bright reddish-orange? Because of its iron rich minerals in the soil
Venus' day is longer than its __________ Year - 243 days to rotate, but 225 Earth days for a complete orbit (year)
On what planet is the solar day 24 hours 39 minutes 35 seconds long Mars
What planet is closest to the sun? Mercury
constellation a pattern of stars in the sky.
visible light electromagnetic radiation that can be seen with the unaided eye.
electromagnetic radiation energy that travels through space in the form of waves.
wavelength the distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of the next.
spectrum the range of wavelengths of electro magnetic waves.
reflecting telescope a telescope that uses one or more mirrors to gather light.
observatory a building that contains one or more telescopes.
galaxy a giant structure that contains hundreds of billions of stars.
universe all of space and everything in it.
light-year the distance that light travels in one year.
giant star a very large star, much larger than the sun.
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram a graph relating the temperature and brightness of stars.
main sequence an area on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram that runs from the upper left to the lower right and includes more than 90 percent of all stars.
pulsar a neutron star that produces radio waves.
nebula a large abount of gas and dust in space, spread out in an immense volume.
protostar a contracting cloud of gas and dust; the earliest stage of a star's life
white dwarf the remaining hot core of a star after its outer layers have expanded and drifted out into space.
supernova the explosion of a dying giant or super giant star.
neutron star a tiny star that remains after a supernova explosion.
black hole the remains of an extremely massive star pulled into a small volume by the force of gravity.
quasar a distant galaxy with a black hole at its center.
binary star a star system that contains two stars.
spiral galaxy a galaxy whose arms curve outward in a pinwheel pattern.
elliptical galaxy a galaxy shaped like a flattened ball, containing only old stars with little to not gas and dust.
irregular galaxy a galaxy that does not have a regular shape.
big bang the initial explosion that resulted in the formation and expansion of the universe.
The process by which stars produce heat and light. Fusion
The most abundant gas in the universe. Hydrogen
When two atoms of hydrogen are fused together they create? Helium
What most stars are made of. Hydrogen
This force tries to crush the star. Gravity
This force pushes back against the force of gravity and keeps the star from collapsing. Fusion
A star begins its life in a cloud of gas a dust called a... Nebula
A nebula is created by a(n) Exploding star or super nova
Gravity begins to squeeze the nebula together. When enough hydrogen is brought together a baby star is born. This baby star is called a(n)... Protostar
A stars death is determined by the stars.... Mass
Our Sun will begin its death scene by expanding to become a(n).... Red Giant
Once our sun puffs away huge layers of itself the remains will be crushed to form a(n).... White dwarf
These stars are the hottest with a surface temperature of 36,000 degrees. Blue Stars
These stars are second hottest with a surface temperature of 18,000 degrees. White Stars
These stars are second coolest with a surface temperature of 10,000 degrees. Yellow Stars
These stars are coolest with a surface temperature of 5,600 degrees. Red Stars
Our star, the Sun, when is begins to die will swell up and become a Red Giant
The red giant will be crushed by gravity into a White Dwarf
Stars more massive than the Sun will be crushed into a mass of neutrons called a.. Neutron Star
A neutron star that is crushed will become a.. Black Hole
Looking for a star rotating around an invisible partner at high speeds. How to look for a black hole
Looking for light that is distorted and bent. Another way to look for a black hole.
A grouping of millions of stars. Galaxies
Our galaxy The Milky Way
Created by: douglal