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Living Environment

Mid term review

What is the definition of life? Something that includes all 8 life functions that living organisms perform
What are the 8 life functions? 1. cellular respiration 2. Nutrition 3. Transport 4. Excretion 5. Synthesis 6. regulation 7. reproduction 8. Growth
What is Metabolism? Food is converted into energy (cellular respiration, required to sustain life)
What is Homeostasis? organisms stability (normal balance)
What is the basis for Classification? Similarities in structures
What is the 5 kingdom system? monera, Protista, fungi, plant, animal
monera unicellular, no nuclear membrane
protista unicellular with a nucleus
fungi mostly multicellular, heterotrophs
plant multicellular, autotroph
animal multicellular, heterotroph
Nomenclature Genus species (choosing of names for things)
Cell Theory basic unit of structure and function in all living things (cells come from cells)
History of cell theory Robert Hooke discovered cell with microscope describing relationship between cells and living things
What exceptions are there to the cell theory? viruses, first cell, mitochondria and chloropast
Microscopes and other techniques for studying cells? Compound, dissecting(stereo), simple, and centrifuge
Cell organelles chloroplasts, mitochondria, cell membrane, ribosomes, nucleus, vacuole, cell wall
Do red blood cells have a nucleus? no
What are the differences in plant and animal cells? cell wall, chloroplast, and vacuoles
What makes up elements? atoms
What don't inorganic compounds have? carbon and hydrogen
What do organic compounds have? carbon and hydrogen
What is dehydration synthesis? removal or loss of water molecules
What is hydrolysis? Big to small molecules (breaking down) reaction with water
What is the composition of a carbohydrate? carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What is the structure of a carbohydrate? 2:1 disaccharides:monosaccharides
Functions of a carbohydrate energy, cellulose of a cell wall
Examples of carbohydrates sugars, starches, polysaccharide,
What are lipids? fats and oils
What is the composition of a lipid? hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol
What is the structure of a lipid? large
what is the function of a lipid? stores energy and makes up cell membrane
What is the composition of a protein? nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
What is the structure of a protein? a chain of amino acids
What is the function of a protein? muscle, hair, etc... in a cell membrane
What are examples of proteins? enzymes, hormones, anti bodies, hemoglobin
What are enzymes? proteins that inniate change
What is the structure of an enzyme? carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
What is the function of an enzyme? speed up chemical reactions
What is the lock and key model of an enzyme? like a puzzle, 2 enzymes go together but have to fit together
What factors affect the rate of enzyme activity? temperature, ph level, amount of enzymes and substrate
What is photosynthesis? process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to create food
What is the difference in autotrophic and heterotrophic? autotrophic make their own food, heterotrophic get food from other sources
What is the equation for photosynthesis? 6CO^2+12H^2O---->c^6 H^12 o^6+6o^2+6h^2o
What are the stages of photosynthesis? light reactions: water splits and oxygen is released dark reactions: CO2 joins hydrogen from light reaction and forms glucose
What are the adaptations of photosynthesis? algae and green plants structure of the leafs chloroplast
What is grana? light part of chloroplast
What is stroma? dark part of chloroplast
What is the equation for cellular respiration? C6 H12 O6+6O2--->enzymes--->6CO2+6H2O+36ATP
What is anaerobic respiration? makes very little energy without oxygen
What is aerobic respiration? makes a lot of energy with oxygen
What are the adaptations for gas exchange in cellular respiration? absorbed from environment and transported to where needed, carbon dioxide is released
What is cell membrane? contains lipids and proteins, protects cell nucleus
What is passive transport? diffusion, no energy needed, move from high to low concentration
What is active transport? uses energy from the cell, move from high to low concentration
What are adaptations for transport? cyclosis, root pressure
What is regulation? The control and coordination of the life activities of an organism
What is nerve control? stimulus that changes the response receptors and effectors
What is the structure of a neuron? one axon and multiple dendrites
What is the adaptations of regulation? neurons that receive and transmit impulses (neurotransmitters)
What is chemical control of regulation? transmits messages from one part to another (hormones-animals and ouxins-plants)
What is locomotion? ability of an organism to move
Organisms with locomotion? male gametes of moss and fern, algae, bacteria, flagella
What is excretion? removal of waste products of metabolism
What types of waste are there in excretion? CO2, H2O, nitrogenous wastes(ammonia, urea, uricacid)
Adaptations of excretion? cell membranes, plant and algae
Name nutrients for human nutrition carbohydrates(sugars), proteins(amino acids), lipids(3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol), vitamins, minerals, water
Organs and functions for human nutrition small intestine: absorbtion and digestion of starches and proteins stomach: digest all organisms and proteins mouth: starches large intestine: excretion
Accessory organs and functions of human nutrition liver: produce bile stored in gall bladder salivery glands, teeth, and tongue
Malfunctions of organs not enough water
Needs/sections for Human Circulation Blood, vessels, blood types, heart structure, immunity, organ transplant, and malfunctions
Connection of blood and circulation flows through the vessels in circulatory system, tissue, no cells, helps maintain homestasis
Vessels and circulation arteries(lymph vessels), capillaries (heart), veins
What are the 4 blood types? a, b, o, ab
What is the structure of the heart? 4 chambers (capillaries), ventricles, veins heart>arteries>arteriols>capillaries>venules>veins>heart
How does immunity connect with circulation? destroys harmful cells from entering circulation
Important factor of organ transplant? same blood types needed for both donor and patient
Malfunctions of circulation? diseases, clotting, wrong blood types
Created by: tbugbee