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Biology Final

dependent variable The effect of an experiment
conclusion end result of an experiment
controlled variables variables that remain the same in both test groups of the controlled experiment
observation perceiving an event with one of the five senses
independent variable The variable that is controlled by the experimenter
hypothesis step of the scientific method that is done before experimentation
experimentation controlled related facts and search for the cause and the steps of scientific method
hypothesis possible explanation to a problem based on all the current known facts
hydrogen bond compound that forms hydrogen ions in solution
solute substance that is dissolved in a solvent
ion an electrically charged Atom or group of atoms from a lost organ of one or more electrons
covalent bond Chemical bond formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
cohesion attraction between molecules of the same substance (used to describe water)
base compound that excepts a proton when dissolved in a solution
polar uneven distribution of change
adhesion attraction between molecules of different substances
solvent substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
ionic bond Bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
neutrons/protons to subatomic particle is found in the nucleus of an atom
1:2:1 The ratio of carbon hydrogen and oxygen found in carbohydrates
enzymes combine with a substrate speed up reaction rates and are not used up in a reaction
monosaccharide The simple molecule is the basic unit of a polysaccharide
catalyst enzyme that speeds up a reaction and slows activation
cellulose polysaccharide that is the building material for plant cell walls giving its rigidity and strength
carbohydrate main source of energy for living things
disaccharide sucrose is an example of this saccharide
lipids creates a waterproofing for membrane of the cell
protein makes up skin hair and muscle
glycogen animal starch
glycerol combines with three fatty acid to make a triglyceride
monosaccharide building block of all carbohydrates
polysaccharide examples glycogen plant starch cellulose
amino acids building blocks of proteins
proteins macromolecule that contains nitrogen carbon hydrogen and oxygen
lipids fence waxes steroids and oils are examples of this macromolecule
saturated fats fats were all carbon atoms are single bonded to hydrogen's no gaps or double bonds
lysosomes organelle that contains enzymes that break things down
chromosomes structures located in the nucleus that contains the genetic material (DNA) of the cell and are visible only during cell division
ribosomes tiny bodies were proteins are synthesized for the cell
eukaryotes A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
cell membrane lipid bilayer with embedded proteins that controls what enters and exits the cell
prokaryote A cell lacking a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
mitochondria converts chemical energy stored in food to ATP
chloroplast uses light energy to make chemical energy
Robert Hooke discovered cells
can viruses it grow and respond no
how do viruses invade and interspecific cells matching receptor sites
how viruses and cells are similar both have the same genetic material
virus protein coat and nucleic acid core
size and shape of viruses they all have different sizes and shapes
type of genetic material of viruses DNA or RNA me
can viruses reproduce without a host no
permeability The degree to which one substance allows another substance to pass through it
exocytosis removal of waste from a cell
endocytosis process by which a cell takes material inside it by the folding of the cell membrane
plasmolysis shrinking cell when water leaves it
high to low concentration Direction in which molecules of a substance move if they are not in the same concentration
Active transport movement of substances using energy
osmosis movement of water from high to low
diffusion movement of particles from high to low
hypertonic high concentration of a solute in a solution
cytolysis cell burst because of too much water
hypotonic Low concentration of a solute in a solution
isotonic equal concentration of solute between Two solutions
3 components of ATP 3 phosphates, adenine, and ribose
sun Ultimate source of energy for all living organisms
reactants in photosynthesis radiant energy
two end products of photosynthesis oxygen and glucose
Thylakoid where the light reaction of photosynthesis occurs
ATP & NADPH two products made in the light reactions necessary to run the Calvin cycle
the oxygen in which organisms depend for cellular respiration comes from what process photosynthesis
thylakoid where light reaction and electron transport chain are
ATP is an important energy transfer molecule because it when the third phosphate of ATP is removed what is released Chemical energy
why are photosynthesis and cellular respiration considered the opposites of each other The products of them are the reactants of the other
Krebs cycle this cycle of cellular respiration produces high energy carriers that provide the electrons for the electron transport chain
36 ATP in cellular respiration
Stroma jelly like, in chloroplasts, where Calvin cycle takes place
light to chemical photosynthesis energy transfer
pyruvate three carbon end product of glycolysis
Matrix of the mitochondria Krebs cycle occurs here
CO2 gas released during krebs cycle
Violet blue and red light Colors of chlorophyll absorbs
Greenlight plants appear green because they reflect this color
pigment molecule that absorbs wave lengths of light and reflects other ones
fermentation process that occurs in the muscle cells of animals when oxygen is absent
why Krebs cycle occurs twice there are two pyruvates
role of oxygen in ETC H2O and final electronic acceptor
what is the equation for alcohol fermentation pyruvate + NADH --> CO2 + ethanol + NAD
sides of DNA strand phosphate and sugar
codon 3 base sequence of messenger RNA
Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins developed the x-ray crystallography that used it diffraction patterns to determine that DNA structure was a helix
rungs of DNA strand adenine, Thymine , guanine, and cytosine
template something you can copy
site of translation ( organelle ) ribosome
anti-codon TRA (3basesequence)
two enzymes in replication helicase and DNA polymerase
Watson and crick discovered structure of DNA (model)
Job of MRNA send DNA a message to cytoplasm
what would TACCCC be if it was mRNA AUGGGG
components of a nucleotide base, sugar, phosphate
two differences between DNA and RNA DNA is double-stranded and DNA has thymine
Job of tRNA takes amino acids to the right side
hydrogen bond between bases
diploid refers to a cell that contains sets of Homologous chromosomes
telophase two this phase of meiosis results and four daughter cells each haploid
metaphase – mitosis chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell
unique pattern crossing over leads to this quality and the species
tetrad four
prophase one synapsis occurs; chromosomes are formed; crossing over
prophase mitosis nucleolus disappears it; spindle fibers form; chromosomes/centrioles move to opposite sides
female sex chromosomes XX
Crossing over during metaphase the mom and dad chromosomes get mixed up
interphase DNA replicates in the S phase of this phase
The stages of mitosis are? mitosis: prophase, metaphase, telephase, anaphase dinner phase: G, S, G two
telephase The nuclear envelope a nucleolus reform during this phase of mitosis
46 number of chromosomes in human somatic cell
Homologus chromosomes refers to a pair of chromosomes were each chromosome is similar in size, shape, and Gene they carry
nondisjunction Homo Logus chromosomes failed to separate during meiosis
metaphase two tetrads line up along equator
synapsis The action of Homologus chromosomes pairing up
probability used in genetics to predict outcomes of events
recessive Jean that will only be expressed when homozygous ressesive
Law of segregation principle that explains abrasion of alleles during gamete formation
Homozygous recessive and dominant gene
heterozygous two dominant or two recessive genes
allele particular form of the trait will be expressed
genotype / DNA genetic make up
phenotype/traits observable physical characteristics
Dihybrid cross that follows two different genes as they passed from one generation to the next
principle of independent assortment Gene pairs segregate randomly and independently of one another
Mono hybrid cross cross to determine one trait
principle of dominance One allele expressed over others
deletion loss of all or part of a chromosome
translocation moves chromosome from one to another
inversion part of chromosome is reversed
frameshift Edition that causes the reading frame to shift resulting in a change of the nucleotide sequence for each amino acid that follows can because by deletion or insertion
duplication segment of a chromosome is repeated
PKU this disease results in mental retardation and other new role logical problems that can be prevented with a low-protein diet
hemophilia sex linked disorder – no blood clot protein
Color blindness sex linked disorder most common in males not able to tell the difference between colors
cystic fibrosis symptoms of this disorder thick mucus in lungs and trouble breathing
tay-Sachs this disease has a weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscle tissue
Huntington's disease this disease shows a gradual Deterioration of the brain which causes uncontrollable movements and mental deterioration
karyotype sets of photographs of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
Klein Felters syndrome males have an extra X chromosome and makes them womanly
body/stomatic and Egg cell cells/cells that were used to when Dolly the sheep was cloned
DNA fingerprint used to find DNA make up
gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments
genetic engineering make changes in organisms DNA to produce new
o universal donor
b type of blood that produces anti-a antibodies in serum
hybridization breeding for desired traits
recombinant DNA combination of DNA from two different organisms
Created by: clarissa13