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Anatomy ch. 6&7

anatomy ch. 6 & 7 notes

Functions of Osseous and Bone Structure (5) 1. support (body) 2. protection (body) 3. storage: minerals and lipids (yellow bone marrow) 4. blood cell production: produced in red bone marrow 5. leverage: movement
Bone classifications: shapes (6) 1. long bone: arms, legs 2. flat bone: sternum, ribs 3. sutural bone: skull 4. irregular bone: vertebrae, pelvis 5. shot bone: carpals, tarsals 6. sesamoid bone: patella
Spongy bone (open network of bone)
medullary cavity marrow cavity
epiphysis ends
metaphysis where epiphysis meets diaphysis
Diaphysis shaft, main portion
4 bones cells 1. osteoprogenitor: maintain populations of osteoblast 2. osteoblast: cells that form bone 3. osteocytes: mature bone cells 4. osteoclast: helps in the maintenance of bone
Haversian canal system (10 terms) 1. vein 2. artery 3. capillaries 4. venule 5. central canal 6. perforating canal 7. asteons 8. endosteum 9. periosteum 10. lamella
Endochondral Bone Formation -cartilage: bone formation into hard bone -most of the body is composed of this type of bone formation
Intramembranous bone formation membrane changing into bone: skull and mandible
Effects of exercise on Bone -bones are adaptable -if muscles become more powerful then bumps and ridges become inlarges to withstand forces -regular exercise is therefore and important stimulus for maintaining normal bone structure -degenerative changes in teh skeleton occur afte
Bones of body divisions axial skeleton: 80 bones appendicular: 126 total: 206
Skull bones cranial bones: 8, facial bones: 14
Associated with skull bones auditory: 6, hyoid: 1
vertebral column vertebrae: 26
thoracic cage sternum: 1, ribs: 24
Skull: 22 bones -cranial: 8 bones: (215, 216, 217) -frontal:1 (green) -occipital:1 foramen magnum (burnt orange in back) -parietal: 2 (Yellow) -temporal: 2 external auditory meatus mastoid process pg 220 (purple) -sphenoid: 1 pg 221(darker yellow behind frontal bone
Facial bones: 14 -maxillae: 2: fused upper jaw; largest facial bones faulty formation results in a cleft palate pg 123 in ATLAS 10-12 week (red in front) -zygomatic: 2: cheek bone temporal process of zygomatic bone pg 224 (blue) -nasal: 2: bridge of the
deeper bones of face -Palatine:2: posterior portion of the palate pg 223 (blue inside nose) -inferior nasal conchae: 2 pg 224. Helps promote turbulent circulation, helping to war the air that is inhaled -lacrimal: 2: smallest facial bone forms medial wall of the eye s
Associated with skull: 7 bones Auditory: 6, pg 586 malleus(hammer) 2 Incus (anvil) 2 Stapes (stirrup) 2 -Hyoid: 1 pg 225 (right underneath mandible) attachment for muscles which move the tongue and aid in speaking and swallowing
Cranial Sutures (3) -Coronal: b/w frontal and parietal -Lambdoidal: b/w parietal and occipital -Sagittal: b/w the parietal and Parietal -Squamosal: b/w the temporal and parietal * these are immoveable joints*
Fontanels (4) -anterior(1): composed of fibrous connective tissue and covers a major blood vessel. Thus it will pulse like the heart - closes around 2 years -Occipital(1): closes within 1-2 months -Sphenoidal(2); closes within 1-2 months -Mastoid(2) closes wit
vertebral column: 26 bones Type of vertebra: #in adult:#in children Cervical: 7: 7 Thoracic: 12: 12 Lumbar: 5: 5 Sacrum: 1: 5 Coccyx: 1: 3-5 TOTAL: 26: 32-34
irregular curves (3) kyohosis, lordosis, scoliosis
scoliosis abnormal lateral curve (pg. 232)
Vertebral Anatomy -cervical vertebra: attaches to skull, smallest vertebra -thoracic vertebra: articulate with tthe ribs at the costal facets (pg. 237) 1-10 only connect in two places, superior and transverse costal faucets -Lumbar: largest (for attachment of large
Ribs: 12 pairs -true ribs: pairs 1-7 attached directly to sternum by costal cartilage: the vertibrosternal ribs usually increase in length and radius or curvature as you go from superior to inferior - vertebrochondral: 8-10 attach indirectly to sternum by 7th - false
intercostal space area b/w ribs occipied by 1. muscles 2. blood vessels 3. nerves
Sternum: flat narrow bone about 6 inches long -manubrium: most superior, articulats with 1 &2 ribs and the clavicle -body: middle part of strnum that articulates with ribs 3-10 -xiphoid process: most inferior, does not articulate with any rib. will finnish ossifying around age 25
Surface markings (18) process, ramus, trochanter, tuberosity, tubercle, crest, line, spine, head, neck, condyle, trochlea, facet, fossa, sulcus, foramen, fissure, sinus or antrum
process projection or bump
ramus an extension of a bone making an angle with the rest o the structure
trochanter large, rough projection
tuberosity smaller, rough projection
tubercle small, rounded projection
crest prominent ridge
line low ridge
spine pointed or narrow process
head expanded articular end of an epiphysis separated from he shaft by a neck
neck narrow connection between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
condyle smooth, rounded articular process
trochlea smooth, grooved articular process shaped like a pulley
facet small, flat articular surface
fossa shallow depression
suclus narrow groove
foramen rounded passageway through the substance of a bone
fissure elongated cleft
sinus or antrum chamber with a bone, normally filled with air
Created by: britlee14