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EDUC 255 pt.2

Final review

extrinsic motivation A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
learning probe method, such as questioning, that helps teachers find out whether students understand a lesson
learning objectives specific behaviors students are expected to exhibit at the end of of a series of lessons
intrinsic motivation A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
initial letter strategies Strategies for learning in which initial letters of items to be memorized are made into a more easily remembered word or phrase.
intrinsic reinforcers behaviors that a person enjoys engaging in for his or her own sake, without any other reward
independent practice component of instruction in which students work by themselves to demonstrate and rehearse new knowledge
gender bias stereotypical views and differential treatment of males and females, often favoring one gender over the other
metacognition knowledge about one's own learning or about how to learn (thinking about thinking)
mnemonics devices or strategies for aiding the memory
multicultural education education that teaches the value of cultural diversity
delinquent low achievers who have given little reason to believe they can succeed by following the path laid out for them by the school.
bio-ecological model Bronfenbrenner's model of development that emphasizes the roles of both nature and nurture as the developing person interacts with a series of environmental systems (microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem)
maslow's needs theory Physiological survival, Safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem, self-actualization
cognitive developmental stages Age-related changes that occur in mental activities such as attending, perceiving, learning, thinking, and remembering. (piaget)
Erikson's 8 stages of pyschosocial developement trust vs. mistrust , autonomy vs doubt to 3yrs, initiative vs guilt 3-6 yrs, industry vs inferiority 6-12 yrs, identity vs role confusion 12-18yrs, intimacy vs isolation young adult, generativity vs stagnation (middle adult), integrity vs despair late
problem solving application of knowledge and skills to achieve certain goals
Microsystem consists of... the child
Mesosystem consists of... school, family, peers, neighborhood park, ect
Exosystem consists of ... extended family, friends, neighbors, mass media
Macrosystem consists of... broad ideology, laws, and customs of one's culture, subculture, or social class
sensorymotor stage Piaget's first stage. Occurs from birth to age 2. Formation of Object Permanence
preoperational stage Piaget's second stage. Occurs from age 2-7. Children learn to represent things in the mind. Think Egocentrically.
concrete operational stage Piaget's third stage. Occurs ages 7-11. Kids develop capacity for logical reasoning and understand conservation, but can only use in familiar situations.
formal operational stage the fourth and last of Piaget's stages. Occurs after age 11. A person can deal abstractly with hypothetical situations and reason logically.
Created by: thanzali