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chapter 14

Facilitating Reading

Goal of reading instruction provide students with the skills, strategies, and knowledge to read and to understand and construct meaning from text for purposes of enjoyment and learning
reading considered the most important area of education
3 key concepts for effective reading instruction 1. Reading is a skilled and strategic process in which learning to decode and read words accurately and rapidly is an essential feature. 2. Reading entails understanding and constructing meaning from text and is dependent on the reader's active engagemen
Comprehension strategies predicting, summarizing, questioning, clarifying
reading comprehension understanding or constructing meaning from text
comprehension monitoring monitoring understanding
cognitive factors attention span, auditory and phonological processing, visual processing, memory, cognitive learning strategies
neurophysiological factors auditory acuity, visual acuity, brain development and functioning, genetic predisposition
educational factors exposure to print, opportunity to engage in literacy activities, quality of early reading instruction, opportunity for appropriate instruction
communication factors listening abilities, speaking abilities, language abilities
personality factors motivation and persistence, sense of personal competence, ability to work in groups, willingness to ask for help, perceived value of reading
textual factors reading level, type of text, vocabulary use and control, clarity of writing style, complexity of writing
decoding/word identification skills and strategies used for recognizing words
alphabetic principle understanding that the sequence of letters in written words represents the sequence of sounds in spoken words; how speech relates to print
phonological awareness skills distinguishing the sounds in a word and being able to segment and blend them
fluency reading quickly and smoothly
reciprocal causation a domino effect in which 1 initial factor leads to a second, which leads to a third, etc
components of effective and efficient reading instruction comprehension; vocabulary; fluency; word identification, decoding, word study; phonological awareness, letter-sound correspondence, alphabetic principle
decodable books books that primarily use words that reflect the phonic and word patterns she has already learned
effective reading instruction for struggling readers estabilishing an environment to promote reading; using appropriate and ongoing screening, assessment, and progress monitoring so that you know the students' reading levels and what skills and strategies your students have mastered and need to develop; pro
critical elements of RTI universal screening, progress monitoring, early intervention in reading for students at risk for reading problems and ongoing assessment and intervention as needed
critical aspects of assessments purpose of the testing (screening, progress monitoring, diagnostic, outcome), specific information needed about the student's reading (specific skills assessment, reading level), number of students being tested (whether you can test individually, in small
diagnostic assessments assessments that tell us specifically how a student is performing and what else he or she needs to know
norm-baded assessments assessments that help us determine how the student's performance compares with that of other students of the same age or in the same grade
progress monitoring/curriculum-based measurement (CBM) means of measuring students' progress and highlights the close tie between curriculum and student performance
informal reading inventories students read lists of words and passages that are leveled by grade, and retell or answer comprehension question about the passages they have read
independent reading level characterized by the students reading on their own without support from others
instructional reading level level at which instruction should occur, students challenged by the reading and still need some support
frustration reading level material is too difficult for the students to read with understanding even with assistance
reading instruction is appropriate and intensive when students have a clear understanding of teacher expectations and goals of instruction, instruction provided matches reader's instructional reading level and needs, adequate text are used that are engaging to the students and at their reading levels, instru
phonological awareness knowing and demonstrating that spoken language can be broken down into smaller units (words, syllables, phonemes); includes the skills of rhyming, alliteration, blending, segmenting, and manipulating
rhyming identifying similarities and differences in word endings
alliteration identifying similarities and differences in word beginnings
blending putting syllables or sounds together to form words
segmenting dividing words into syllables and sounds
manipulating deleting, adding, and substituting syllables and sounds
general guidelines for teaching phonological awareness consider the students' levels of development and tasks that need to be mastered, model each activity, use manipulatives and movement to make auditory/oral tasks more visible, move from less to more difficult tasks, provide feedback and opportunities to pr
sight word word for which the student can recognize the pronunciation and meaning automatically
automaticity quick word recognition
high-frequency words ex: the, you, and, was
phonic analysis use of phonics to decode words
onset-rimes spelling patterns; aka phonograms or word families
morphological awareness/structural analysis use of knowledge of word structures such as compound words, root words, suffixes, prefixes, and inflection ending and syllabication to decode and/or glean the meaning of multisyllabic words
syllabication dividing words by common syllable types
syntax and semantics use knowledge of word order (syntax) and context (semantics) to support the pronunciation and confirm word meaning
word wall large space dedicated to displaying word tyoes that are the focus of the week's instruction
DISSECT strategy Discover the word's context Isolate the prefix Separate the suffix Say the stem Examine the stem Check with someone Try the dictionary
fluency components pace (slow or uneven rate), accuracy (with pauses, hesitations, repetitions, or incorrect pronunication), prosody (expression and intonation, and correct phrasing (reading words in logical clause and sentence unites
oral reading fluency number of words a student reads correctly in 1 minute usually out of a grade-level passages
reading aloud typically used at the elementary level to preview a book or model fluent reading
big books books with large pictures and words that can be seen by the whole class
repeated reading consists of reading short, meaningful passages several times until a satisfactory level of fluency is reached
phrased text lesson variation of repeated reading that can be helpful for students who have difficulty with phrasing and intonation
peer-assisted learning (PAL)/classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) promote the use of students working together to provide practice and feedback on improving reading fluency
comprehension strategies use before, during, and after reading
effective comprehension instruction activating background knowledge, generating and answering questions, clarifying, summarizing, using text structure, monitoring comprehension, engaging text and conversations about reading
KWL 1. Accessing what I K now 2. Determining what I W ant to learn 3. Recalling what I L earned
Question-Answer Relationships (QAR) strategy helps students realize that when answering questions, they need to not only consider the text and their prior knowledge, but also use strategic behavior to adjust the use of each of these sources
4 types of QAR 1. Right there 2. Think and search 3. Author and you 4. On my own
collaborative strategic reading multicomponent learning strategy that is typically used with students in grades 4-12 and combines essential reading-comprehension strategies that have been demonstrated as effective in improvising students' understanding of text with cooperative learning
what I found surprising #1: I never really thought about the fact that as a general education teacher you have to establish an environment to promote reading. It makes sense but I guess I just never connected the dots between the two.
what I found surprising #2: I was surprised that they had to spell out that when doing phonological awareness activities it is imperative that you move from less to more difficult tasks. Maybe it is just me but I feel that this is very obvious.
what I found surprising #3: I was surprised by how much of this chapter I already knew. All my previous reading courses have me well prepared for my future!
What I am still confused about #1: The chapter talked about 4 different reading program designed specifically for students with reading difficulties or disabilities. I wish it would have given more information on each.
What I am still confused about #2: When is it appropriate to use informal reading inventories and do assess all students or just the struggling readers?
What I am still confused about #3: What exactly are diagnostic assessments? What do they look like? How are they implemented? To whom are they given?
Created by: mimilap