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Learning Disabilitie

Learning Disabilities

What is a learning disability? It is a disorder where people have difficulty speaking, reading, or writing language or performing mathematical calculations.
What laws help to protect people with learning disabilities? IDEA assures that students receive a free and appropriate public education, NCLB makes schools measure yearly progress, ADA protects discrimination in schools and employment, and Section 504 provides funding to schools for accommodations.
What are the types of learning disabilities? Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, Auditory and Visual Processing Disorders, and Non-verbal Learning Disabilities
How prevalent are learning disabilities? In the U.S. (2005), about 2.4% of 6-11 year olds were diagnosed with LD, and 3.4% of 12-17 year olds. Children diagnosed are mostly male: 3.9% male vs. 2.0% female in 6-17 year olds. About 5% of students enrolled in public schools were diagnosed with LD.
What is the discrepancy model? It is a way to help diagnose a student with LD. The model says there must be a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in: oral expression, written expression, spelling, comprehension, reading, math reasoning or calculations
What is one of the primary challenges students with LD face in the classroom? Reading is a common difficulty for students with LD. Many students with LD struggle with basic phonological awareness (sounds in a word) and phonics (sounds for letters). Teaching sound-symbol correspondence and syllables can help struggling readers.
What would be an area to target as an educator to students with LD? The area I focus on most is reading, especially with older readers. First, teaching phonics and syllable types can help students internalize spelling and reading patterns. Emphasizing prefixes and suffixes will also help students understand the words.
After phonics instruction, what can educators do to help older readers? Students should work on fluency and word-recognition. Students can do speed drills with lists of words and short passages can help their speed when reading. Vocabulary instruction is also important, where students learn and use new words in everyday life.
How can educators help students struggling with comprehension? Educators can choose texts that promote students to look deeper into the text such as fables, poems, oral histories, and adapted classics. Teachers should be asking open-ended questions and directly teaching topics like figurative language and tone.
Created by: emifreem