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Cell Bio Exam 3

Ch 15, 17, 18, 21

Properties of Intermediate Filaments Polarity: None Functions: -Structure -Shape -Formation of nuclear lamina and scaffolding -Strengthening of nerve cell axons -Keeping muscle fibers in register
Properties of Microtubules Monomers: Alpha-Tubulin and Beta-Tubulin Polarity: +/- ends Functions: -Organization of share and polarity -Chromosome movements -Intracellular transport -Cell motility
Elements of the Cytoskeleton 1. Microtubules (MTs) 2. Microfilaments (MFs) 3. Intermediate filaments (IFs)
Properties of Microfilaments Monomers: G-actin Polarity: +/- ends Functions: -Muscle contraction -Cell locomotion -Cytoplasmic streaming -Cytokinesis -Shape and transport
Types of Microtubules 1. Cytoplasmic 2. Axonemal
Bacterial-Tubulin Equivalent Ftz
Bacterial Intermediate Filament Protein Equivalent Crescentin
Protofilament, Heterodimer, Tubulin Monomers Protofilament: The whole heterodimer and monomer(alpha or beta monomers) all together. Heterodimer: Alpha and Beta monomers. Monomer: An alpha or Beta particle.
Bacteria Actin Equivalent MreB
Vinblastine and Vincristine -Affect MTs -Aggregate tubulin heterodimers
Phallodin -Affects MFs -Binds and stabilizes assembled MFs - (+) No polymerization - (-) No depolymerization
Taxol - Affects MTs - Stabilizes MTs - (+) No polymerization - (-) No depolymerization -Everything is stable.
Latrunculin A - Affects MFs - Sequesters actin monomers "JAIL" (Puts monomers separately in a corner or "jail" to keep from polymerizing.
Microfilament Actins - G-actin - F-actin - G-actin: Monomers of F-actin - F-actin: Polymerized G-actin which form filaments.
Cytochalasin D - Affects MTs - Prevents addition of new monomers to plus ends ("thinks plus end is ugly and won't hook up with it")
Colchicine Colcemid - Affects MTs - Binds tubulin monomers, inhibiting self assembly (binds to both/either alpha or beta monomers and won't let them polymerize).
Nocadazole - Affects MTs - Binds to Beta-tubulin, inhibiting polymerization (thus will not allow the monomers to bind).
Singlet MTs - 13 profilaments - Cytoplasmic MTs
Doublet MTs - One of the 13 protofilament part and one additional incomplete 10 or 11 protofilament part. - Ex: Cilia and flagella
Triplet MTs - One 13 protofilament part and two additional 10 or 11 protofilament parts. - Ex: Basal bodies and centrioles
Microtubule Nucleation - When oligomers (groups of aggregated tubulin heterodimers) form nuclei from which MTs grow.
Microtubule Elongation - The stage in which nucleated MTs grow by the addition of subunits at either end.
MT Lag Phase Nucleation
MT Elongation Phase - Tubulin heterodimers are added to the nucleated MT and it grows.
MT Plateau Phase - MT assembly and disassembly are balanced.
MT Critical Concentration - The tubulin heterodimer concentration at which MT assembly is exactly balanced with disassembly.
MT Plus End - The rapidly growing end of the MT.
MT Minus End - The slowly growing end of the MT OR - The depolymerizing end when the critical concentration is reached for the plus end, but not the minus end.
Treadmilling - When a given tubulin molecule incorporated at the plus end is displaced progressively along. -The MT eventually are lost by depolymerization at the opposite end.
MAPs -MT-associated proteins. -MAPs increased MT stability and can affect the density of bundles of MTs. -Tau: Causes MTs to form tight bundles in axons. -MAP2: Causes the formation of looser bundles of MTs.
Tau Causes MTs to form tight bundles in axons.
MAP2 Causes the formation of looser bundles of MTs.