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Tox Test 4

What are symptoms of depression? sadness, depressed mood, inactivity, loss of interest or pleasure, reduced ability to enjoy life, sleep disturbances
What are some treatments for depression? pharmaceuticals, psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy
What is the mechanism of action for antidepressants? mechanism is unclear, believed to involve reuptake inhibition of serotonin and norepinephrine
What are some first generation antidepressants? TCAs, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
When are MAOIs used? when people are allergic/unresponsive to TCAs
What is the mechanism of action for first generation antidepressants? affect seratonin and norepinephrine reuptake
What are the side effects of TCAs and MAOIs? block a1: hypotension, dizziness, sedation block H1: weight gain, sedation block M1: dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention
What is the mechanism of action for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors? inhibit serotonin reuptake without side effects of TCAs and MAOIs
Wht are the side effects of SSRIs? anxiety, sleep disturbances, sexual dysfunction
What are some third generation antidepressants? venlafaxine, mirtazapine, nefazodone
What is the mechanism of action for venlafaxine? blocks serotonin and NE reuptake, also a weak inhibitor of dopamine
What is the mechanism of action for mirtazapine? a2 antagonist, 5-HT2 antagonist, 5-HT3 antagonist
What are th side effects of mirtazapine? weight gain and sedation
What is the metabolism of third generation antidepressants? lipophillic and well-absorbed, undergo heavy 1st pass metabolism. Most metabolize by hydroxylayion and demethylation
How do antipsychotics work? They do not eliminate th fundamental thinking disorder, but they permit the patient to function in a supportive environment.
What are the symptoms of schizophrenia? delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonic behavior, los of ability to speak, lack of will, lack of emotional expression
What are some typical antipsychotics? phenothiazines, thioxanthines, dibenzoxapines, butyrophenones, benzamides
What are some atypical antipsychotics? clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole
What is the mechanism of action for antipsychotics? block DA receptors in brain and periphery. They are antagonized by drugs that raise DA levels. Also inhibit 5-HT receptors
What are the effects of antipsychotics? reduce spontaneous physical movement, do not depress intellectual/motor function, may cause sedation. Usually takes several weeks to see results.
What are the extrapyramidal effects of antipsychotics? parkinsonian symptoms, motor restlessness, tardive dyskinesia. Co-administration of benztropine can reduce effects.
What are the adverse effects of antipsychotics? parkinsonian symptoms, drowsiness, confusion, dry mouth, urinary retention, sexual dysfunction, constipation. May aggravate EtOH withdrawal, epilepsy
Created by: bdcox15