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Elements, atoms, chemical bonding, isotopes,

Atoms Smallest particles of matter; retains all of the characteristics of an element
Atomic structure Central region called the nucleus; consists of protons (positive) and neutrons (neutral)
Electrons Negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus; located in discrete energy levels called shells
Chemical bonding Formation of a compound by combining two or more elements
Ionic bonding Atoms gain or lose outermost valence electrons to form ions; ionic compounds consist of an orderly arrangement of oppositely charged ions
Covalent bonding Atoms share electrons to achieve electrical neutrality; covalent compounds are generally stronger than ionic bonds; both ionic and covalent bonds typically occur in the same compound
Metallic bonding Valence electrons are free to migrate amoung atoms; weaker and less common than ionic or covalent bonds
Isotopes and radioactive decay Mass number is the sum of neutrons plus protons in an atom; an isotope is an atom that exhibits variation in its mass number; some isotopes have unstable nuclei that emit particles and energy in a process known as radioactive decay
Created by: Eyork70