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Adler and Rodman

Study cards for the COMM 101 (Adler and Rodman) final exam

Coculture The perception of membership in a group that is part of an encompassing culture.
Collectivistic Culture A culture in which members focus on the welfare of the group as a whole, rather than a concern by individuals for their own success
Culture The language, values, beliefs, traditions, and customs people share and learn.
Ethnicity A social construct that refers to the degree to which a person identifies with a particular group, usually on the basis of nationality, culture, religion, or some other unifying perspective
Ethnocentrism The attitude that one’s own culture is superior to others’
High-context Culture A culture that relies heavily on subtle, often nonverbal cues to maintain social harmony
In-groups Groups in which we identify
Individualistic Culture A culture in which members focus on the value and welfare of individual members, as opposed to a concern for the group as a whole
Intergroup Communication The interaction between members of different cocultures
Low-context Culture A culture that uses language primarily to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas as directly as possible
Organizational culture A relatively stable, shared set of rules about how to behave and a set of values about what is important
out-group Groups of people that we view as different from us
power distance The degree to which members of a group are willing to accept a difference in power and status
prejudice An unfairly biased and intolerant attitude toward others who belong to an out-group
race A social construct originally created to explain differences between people whose ancestors originated in different regions of the world-Africa, Asia, Europe, and so on
salience How much weight we attach to a particular person or phenomenon
stereotyping The perceptual process of applying exaggerated beliefs associated with a categorizing system.
uncertainty avoidance The cultural tendency to seek stability and honor tradition instead of welcoming risk, uncertainty, and change
all-channel network A communication network pattern in which group members are always together and share all information with one another
authoritarian leadership style A leadership style in which the designated leader uses legitimate, coercive, and reward power to dictate the group’s actions
chain network A communication network in which information passes sequentially from one member to another
coercive power The power to influence others by the threat or imposition of unpleasant consequences
connection power The influence granted by virtue of a member’s ability to develop relationships that help the group reach its goal
democratic leadership style A style in which the nominal leader invites the group’s participation in decision making
dysfunctional roles Individual roles played by group members that inhibit the group’s effective operation
emergent leader A member who assumes leadership roles without being appointed by higher-ups
expert power The ability to influence others by virtue of one’s perceived expertise on the subject in question
formal role A role assigned to a person by group members or an organization, usually to establish order
Gatekeepers Producers of mass messages who determine what messages will be delivered to consumers, how those messages will be constructed, and when they will be delivered
group A small collection of people whose members interact with one another, usually face-to-face, over time in order to reach goals
group goals Goals that a group collectively seeks to accomplish
hidden agendas Individual goals that group members are unwilling to reveal
individual goals Individual motives for joining a group
informal roles Roles usually not explicitly recognized by a group that describe functions of group members, rather than their positions. These are sometimes called “functional roles.”
laissez-faire leadership style A style in which the designated leader gives up his or her formal role, transforming the group into a loose collection of individuals
leadership grid A two-dimensional model that identifies leadership styles as a combination of concern for people and for the task at hand
legitimate power The ability to influence a group owing to one’s position in a group
nominal leader The person who is identified by title as the leader of a group
norms Shared values, beliefs, behaviors, and procedures that govern a group’s operation
power The ability to influence others’ thought sand/or actions
procedural norms Norms that describe rules for the group’s operation
referent power The ability to influence others by virtue of the degree to which one is like or respected
reward power The ability to influence others by the granting or promising of desirable consequences
roles An explicit, officially stated guideline that governs group functions and member behavior
situational leadership A theory that argues that the most effective leadership style varies according to leader-member relations, the nominal leader’s power, and the task structure
social norms Group norms that govern the way members relate to one another
social roles Emotional roles concerned with maintaining smooth personal relationships among group members. Also termed “maintenance functions.”
sociogram A graphic representation of the interaction patterns in a group
task norms Group norms that govern the way members handle the job at hand
task roles Roles group members take on in order to help solve a problem
trait theories of leadership The belief that it is possible to identify leaders by personal traits, such as intelligence, appearance, or sociability
virtual groups People who interact with one another via mediated channels, without meeting face-to-face
wheel network A communication network in which a gatekeeper regulates the flow of information from all other members
brainstorming A method for creatively generating ideas in groups by minimizing criticism and encouraging a large quantity of ideas without regard to their workability or ownership by individual members
breakout groups A strategy used when the number of members is too large for effective discussion. Sub-groups simultaneously address an issue and then report back to the group at large
cohesiveness The totality of forces that causes members to feel themselves part of a group and makes them want to remain in that group
conflict stage A stage in problem-solving groups when members openly defend their positions and question those of others
consensus Agreement among group members about a decision
dialogue A process in which people let go of the notion that their ideas are more correct or superior to others’ and instead seek to understand an issue from many different perspectives
emergence stance A stage in problem solving when the group moves from conflict toward a single solution
focus group A procedure used in market research by sponsoring organizations to survey potential users or the public at large regarding a new product or idea
force field analysis A method of problem analysis that identifies the forces contribution to resolution of the problem and the forces that inhibit its resolution
forum A discussion format in which audience members are invited to add their comments to those of the official discussants
groupthink A group’s collective striving for unanimity that discourages realistic appraisal of alternatives to its chosen decision
information overload The decline in efficiency that occurs when the rate of complexity of material is too great to manage
information underload The decline in efficiency that occurs when there is a shortage of the information that is necessary to operate effectively
nominal group technique A method for including the ideas of all group members in a problem-solving session
orientation stage A stage in problem-solving groups when members become familiar with one another’s position and tentatively volunteer their own
panel discussion A discussion format in which participants consider a topic more or less conversationally, without formal procedural rules. Panel discussion may be facilitated by a moderator
parliamentary procedure A problem-solving method in which specific rules govern the way issues may be discussed and decisions made
problem census A technique used to equalize participation in groups when the goal is to identify important issues or problems. Members first put ideas on cards, which are then compiled by a leader to generate a comprehensive statement of the issue or problem
reinforcement stage A stage in problem-solving groups when members endorse the decision they have made
symposium A discussion format in which participants divide the topic in a manner that allows each member to deliver in-depth information without interruption
abstract language Language that lacks specificity or does not refer to observable behavior or other sensory data
abstraction ladder A range of more- to less-abstract terms describing an event or object
behavioral description An account that refers only to observable phenomena
convergence Accommodating one’s speaking style to another person, who usually is desirable or has higher status
divergence A linguistic strategy in which speakers emphasize differences between their communicative style and others’ in order to create distance
emotive language Language that conveys the sender’s attitude rather than simply offering an objective description
equivocal words Words that have more than one dictionary definition
equivocation A vague statement that can be interpreted in more than one way
euphemism A pleasant-sounding term used in place of a more direct but less pleasant one
factual statement A statement that can be verified as being true or false
inferential statement A conclusion arrived at from an interpretation of evidence
jargon The specialized vocabulary that is used as a kind of shorthand by people with common backgrounds and experience
language A collection of symbols, governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals
linguistic intergroup bias The tendency to label people and behaviors in terms that reflect their in-group or out-group status
linguistic relativism A moderate form of linguistic determinism that argues that language exerts a strong influence of the perceptions of the people who speak it
opinion statement A statement based on the speaker’s beliefs
phonological rules Linguistic rules governing how sounds are combined to form words
pragmatic rules Rules that govern how people use language in everyday interaction
relative words Words that gain their meaning by comparison
semantic rules Rules that govern the meaning of language as opposed to its structure
sex role The social orientation that governs behavior, in contrast to a person’s biological gender
slang Language used by a group of people whose members belong to a similar coculture or other group
symbols Arbitrary constructions that represent a communicator’s thoughts
syntactic rules Rules that govern the ways in which symbols can be arranged as opposed to the meanings of those symbols
advising response Helping response in which the receiver offers suggestions about how the speaker should deal with a problem
ambushing A style in which the receiver listens carefully to gather information to use in an attack on the speaker
analytical listening Listening in which the primary goal is to fully understand the message, prior to any evaluation
analyzing statement A helping style in which the listener offers an interpretation of a speaker’s message
attending The process of focusing on certain stimuli from the environment
comforting A response style in which a listener reassures, supports, or distracts the person seeking help
counterfeit question A question that disguises the speaker’s true motives, which do not include a genuine desire to understand the other person
critical listening Listening in which the goal is to evaluate the quality or accuracy of the speaker’s remarks
defensive listening A response style in which the receiver perceives a speaker’s comments as an attack
hearing The process wherein sound waves strike the eardrum and cause vibrations that are transmitted to the brain
insensitive listening the failure to recognize the thoughts or feelings that are not directly expressed by a speaker, and instead accepting the speaker’s words at face value
insulated listening A style in which the receiver ignores undesirable information
judging response A reaction in which the receiver evaluates the sender’s message either favorably or unfavorably
listening The process wherein the brain reconstructs electrochemical impulses generated by hearing into representations of the original sound and gives them meaning
listening fidelity The degree of congruence between what a listener understand and what the message sender was attempting to communicate
Mindful listening Active, high-level information processing
mindless listening Passive, low-level information processing
paraphrasing Feedback in which the receiver rewords the speaker’s thoughts and feelings. Feedback can be used to verify understand, demonstrate empathy, and help others solve their problems
prompting Using silence and brief statements of encouragement to draw out a speaker
psuedolistening An imitation of true listening in which the receiver’s mind is elsewhere
questioning A style of helping in which the receiver seeks additional information from the sender. Some questioning response are really disguised advice
reflecting Listing that helps the person speaking hear and think about the words just spoken
relational listening A listening style that is driven primarily by the concern to build emotional closeness with the speaker
remembering the act of recalling previously introduced information. Recall drops off in two phases: short term and long term
residual message The part of a message a receiver can recall after short- and long-term memory loss
responding Providing observable feedback to another person’s behavior or speech
selective listening A listening style in which the receiver responds only to messages that interest him or her
sincere question A question posed with the genuine desire to learn from another person
stage hogging A listening style in which the receiver is more concerned with making his or her own point than with understanding the speaker
supportive listening The reception approach to use when others seek help for personal dilemmas
task-oriented listening A listening style that is primarily concerned with accomplishing the task at hand
understanding The act of interpreting a message by following syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic rules
actuate To move members of an audience toward a specific behavior
ad hominem fallacy A fallacious argument that attacks the integrity of a person to weaken his or her position
anchor The position supported by audience members before a persuasion attempt
argumentum ad populum fallacy Fallacious reasoning based on the dubious notion that because many people favor an idea, you should, too
argumentum ad vercundiam fallacy Fallacious reasoning that tries to support a belief by relying on the testimony of someone who is not an authority on the issue being argued
convincing A speech goal that aims at changing audience member’s beliefs, values, or attitudes
credibility The believability of a speaker or other source of information
direct persuasion Persuasion that does not try to hide or disguise the speaker’s persuasive purpose
either-or-fallacy Fallacious reasoning that sets up false alternatives, suggesting that if the inferior one must be rejected, then the other must be accepted
emotional evidence Evidence that arouses emotional reactions in an audience
ethical persuasion Persuasion in an audience’s best interest that does not depend on false or misleading information to induce change in that audience
ethos A speaker’s credibility or ethical appeal
evidence Material used to prove a point, such as testimony, statistics, and examples
fallacy An error in logic
indirect persuasion Persuasion that disguises or deemphasizes the speaker’s persuasive goal
latitude of acceptance In social judgment theory, statements that a receiver would not reject
latitude on noncommitment In social judgment theory, statements that a receiver would not care strongly about one way or another
latitude of rejection In social judgment theory, statements that a receiver could not possibly accept
logos A speaker’s use of logical arguments to appeal to the audience’s sense of reasoning
motivated sequence A five-step plan used in persuasive speaking; also known as Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
pathos A speaker’s use of emotional appeals to persuade an audience
persuasion The act of motivating a listener, through communication, to change a particular belief, attitude, value, or behavior
post hoc fallacy Fallacious reasoning that mistakenly assumes that one event causes another because they occur sequentially
proposition of fact A claim bearing on issue in which there are two or more sides of conflicting factual evidence
proposition of policy A claim bearing on issue that involves adopting or rejecting a specific course of action
proposition of value A claim bearing on issue involving the worth of some idea, person, or object
reductio ad absurdum fallacy Fallacious reasoning that unfairly attacks an argument by extending it to such extreme lengths that it looks ridiculous
social judgement theory An explanation of attitude change that posits that opinions will change only in small increments and only when the target opinions lie within the receiver’s latitudes of acceptance and noncommitment
target audience That part of an audience that must be influenced in order to achieve a persuasive goal
asynchronous communication Communication that occurs when there’s a time gap between when a message is sent and when it is received
channel The medium through which a message passes from sender to receiver
communication The process of creating meaning through symbolic interaction
communication competence The ability to maintain a relationship on terms acceptable to all parties
coordination Interaction in which participants interact smoothly, with a high degree of satisfaction but without necessarily understanding one another well
decoding The process in which a receiver attaches meaning to a message
disinhibition The tendency to transmit messages without considering their consequences
dyad A two-person unit
dyadic communication two-person communication
encoding The process of putting thoughts into symbols, most commonly words
environment Both the physical setting in which communication occurs and the personal perspectives of the parties involved
feedback the discernable response of a receiver to a sender’s message
flaming Sending angry and/or insulting e-mails, text messages, and website postings
interpersonal communication Communication in which the parties consider one another as unique individuals rather than as objects. It is characterized by minimal use of stereotyped labels; unique, idiosyncratic social rules; and a high degree of information exchange
intrapersonal communication Communication that occurs within a single person
linear communication model A characterization of communication as a one-way even in which a message flows from sender to receiver
mass communication the transmission of messages to large, usually widespread audiences via broadcast means (such as radio and television), print (such as newspapers, magazines, and books), multimedia, and other forms of media such as recordings and movies
mediated communication Communication sent via a medium other than fact-to-face interaction, e.g., telephone, e-mail, and instant messaging. It can be both mass and personal
message A sender’s planned and unplanned words and nonverbal behaviors
noise External, physiological, and psychological distractions that interfere with the accurate transmission and reception of a message
organizational communication Communication that occurs amongst a structured collection of people in order to meet a need or pursue a goal
public communication Communication that occurs when a group becomes too large for all members to contribute. It is characterized by an unequal amount of speaking and by limited verbal feedback
receiver One who notices and attends to a message
richness A term used to describe the abundance of non-verbal cues that add clarity to a verbal message
sender The originator of a message
small group communication Communication within a group of a size such that every member can participate actively with the other members
social media Digital communication channels used primarily for personal reasons, often to reach small groups of receivers
symbol An arbitrary sign used to represent a thing, person, idea, event, or relationship in ways that make communication possible
synchronous communication Communication that occurs in real time
transactional communication model Communication that occurs in real time
Web 2.0 A term used to describe how the Internet has evolved from a one-way medium into a “mass personal” phenomenon
androgynous Combining both masculine and feminine traits
attribution the process of attaching meaning
empathy The ability to project oneself into another person’s point of view, so as to experience the other’s thoughts and feelings
face The socially approved identity that a communicator tries to present
facework Verbal and nonverbal behavior designed to create and maintain a communicator’s face and the face of others
gender Socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a society considers appropriate for men and/or women
identity management Strategies used by communicator s to influence the way others view them
interpretation The perceptual process of attaching meaning to stimuli that have previously been selected and organized
narrative the stories people create and use to make sense of their personal worlds
organization the perceptual process of organizing stimuli into patterns
perceived self The person we believe ourselves to be in moments of candor. It may be identical to or different from the presenting and ideal selves
perception checking A three-part method for verifying the accuracy of interpretations, including a description of the sense data, two possible interpretations, and a request for confirmation of the interpretations
personality The set of enduring characteristics that define a person’s temperament, thought processes, and social behavior
presenting self The image a person presents to others. It may be identical to or different from the perceived and ideal selves
reflected appraisal The influence of others on one’s self-concept
selection the perceptual act of attending to some stimuli in the environment and ignoring others
self-concept The relatively stable set of perceptions each individual holds of himself or herself
self-esteem The part of the self-concept that involves evaluations of self-worth
self-fulfilling prophecy A prediction or expectation of an event that makes the outcome more likely to occur than would otherwise have been the case
self-serving bias The tendency to interpret and explain information in a way that casts the perceiver in the most favorable manner
sex A biological category such as male, female, or inter-sexed
significant other A person whose opinion is important enough to affect one’s self-concept strongly
stereotyping The perceptual process of applying exaggerated beliefs associated with a categorizing system
sympathy Compassion for another’s situation
Created by: tseeley