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Botany Unit 4

Aggregation The clinging together of soil particles to form larger, crumb-like particles
Biochemical A chemical formed by a living organism
Capillary water Water held against the force of gravity
Dormancy Resting or non-growing state
Field capacity Water left after capillary movement stopped
Gravitational water Water that the soil is unable to hold against the force of gravity
Loam Soil with approximately equal amounts of sand, silt, and clay,considered best type of soil for planting
Limestone Natural rock used to reduce soil acidity
Medium Material that is used to start and grow seeds and plants
Macro elements Major elements of fertilizer, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium-NPK
Micro elements Plant nutrients needed in small quantities
Perlite Gray-white material of volcanic origin used to improve aeration of the media
Photoperiodism Response of plants to different periods of light and darkness in terms of flowering, reproduction cycle, and dormancy
Peat Moss Partially decomposed vegetation that has been preserved underwater
Slow release fertilizers Fertilizer that releases plant nutrients over a long period of time
Soilless mix Contains combinations of perlite, sphagnum moss, peat moss, vermiculite, limestone, tree bark, and slow release fertilizer
Sphagnum moss Dehydrated remains of acid bog plants, used in growing media
Transpiration Loss of water through the leaves or stems of plants
Texture triangle To determine the textural name of a soil
Tree bark Bark of pine or hardwood trees ground in small pieces
Vermiculite Material expanded by heating that increases the water-holding capacity
Basic Needs of Plants Water, nutrition, medium, temperature, light, humidity, insects
What makes up 70% to 90% of a plants weight? Water
How many elements does a plant require from the soil or from fertilizers to grow? Sixteen
Where is most of the water found in plants? Its cells
Stress caused to plant by depriving it of water More susceptible to diseases and insect attack, slows the process of photosynthesis
This must be a water solution before roots can absorb and transport it Nutrients
Sandy soil Soil in which silt and clay make up less than 20% of material by weight,these soils drain well, but have little capacity to hold moisture & plant food
Loan soil Mixture of approximately equal parts of sand, silt and clay
Organic matter Dead & decaying plat parts that improve the water-holding & fertilizer holding capacity of the soil.
How can you determine a soil by a mechanical analysis' actually measuring the % of sand, silt and clay? By using the texture triangle
If a plant is allowed to reach the extreme wilt stage, what will occur? Death
What % of a plant weight is water? 70 to 90%
What would you add to reduce the soil pH? Sulfur
What section of soil profile contains the most organic matter? Topsoil
Why would you add gypsum to soil? Change the particle size and loosen the compaction of soil, improve drainage, decrease acidity, and eliminate soil salt
List three short day plants Poinsettia, Chrysanthemum, Christmas cactus
List three long day plants Lettuce, radishes, potatoes
What indicates a nitrogen deficiency? Yellow/pale green leaves
What indicates a phosphorous deficiency? Purple on underside of leaves,reduced flower, fruit and seed production, susceptibility to plant disease
Function and description of Nitrogen Encourages above ground vegetative growth, gives dark green color to leaves-produces soft, tender growth
Function and description of Phosphorus Needed for flowers and seeds to form, hastens maturity,encourages root growth, increases resistance to disease,improves quality of crop
Function and description of Potassium Necessary for starch formation, increases plant's resistance to disease,needed for the development of chlorophyll, encourages efficient use of carbon dioxide
Function and description of LIme Affects soil acidity,furnished calcium,which is important in forming plant cell walls
Created by: sudokken