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DFSA Drugs

Characteristics of Flunetrazepam, GHB, and Ketamine

What is the DFA classification for flunitrazepam? Schedule I
What kind of drug is flunitrazepam? Intermediate acting benzodiazepine
What is the mechanism of action for flunitrazepam? Potentiation of GABA-mediated synaptic processes in the brain
What is the therapeutic blood concentration of flunitrazepam? 5-15 micrograms/L
Describe the elimination of flunitrazepam. Half life is ~15 hours. 84% excreted in urine. 11% excreted in feces. 0.2% excreted unchanged.
What is the most abundant metabolite of flunitrazepam? 7-aminoflunitrazepam
What are the effects of flunitrazepam? Decreased blood pressure. Impaired memory. Drowsiness. Visual disturbances. Dizziness. Confusion. GI disturbances. Urine retention.
What drugs enhance the effects of flunitrazepam? ethanol, CNS depressants, nitrous oxide, ketamine, opioids
What are the side effects of GHB? Drowsiness. Dizziness. Nausea. Amnesia. Motor control loss. Visual disturbances. Unconsciousness. Bradycardia. Seizures. Respiratory depression. Coma.
How long does it take for the effects of GHB to manifest? 15-30 minutes
What is the half life of GHB? 30 minutes
How long can GHB be detected in blood and urine? Blood: 8 hours Urine: 12 hours
GHB is produced in the body as a naturally occurring metabolite of GABA. What are the expected concentrations of naturally occurring GHB? Blood: up to 2 mg/L Urine: up to 10 mg/L
What postmortem concentration of GHB suggests ingestion of the drug? Any concentration > 50 mg/L
What doses of ketamine are commonly seen in drug abuse? IV: 50 mg IN: 60-100 mg
What is the mechanism of action for ketamine? Inhibits pain by cutting off brain's perception of pain without respiratory depression. This results in a state dissociated from the environment but not asleep.
What are the effects of ketamine? Impaired cognitive processes. Dizziness. Motor incoordination. Slurred speech. Confusion. Amnesia.
What is the half life of ketamine? 2-3 hours
What are the metabolites of ketamine? norketamine and dehydronorketamine
What are the four components of memory? Very short term. Short term. Long term. Retrieval.
What is amnesia? Memory deficits in an individual who has a normal attention span, normal intelligence, and the ability to acquire new skills.
What is retrograde amnesia? Memory loss occurs for events before the onset of brain damage.
What is anterograde amnesia? Memory loss occurs for events after the onset of brain damage.
Which type of amnesia is typically drug-induced? Anterograde amnesia
Created by: bdcox15