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Essentials: Skeletal

Vocabulary Skeletal System

diaphysis the long shaft of the bone
epiphysis the 2 extremities or ends of the bone
Medullary canal a cavity within the diaphysis
yellow marrow what the medullary canal is filled with which is mainly a storage area for fat cells
endosteum membrane that lines the medullary canal and keeps the yellow marrow intact. Also produces some bone growth
red marrow found in certain bones, such as the vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and cranium, and the proximal ends of the humerus and femur. Produces red blood cells, platelets, and some white blood cells
erythrocytes red blood cells
thrombocytes platelets
leukocytes white blood cells
periosteum the tough membrane on the outside of the bone
axial skeleton forms the main trunk of the body and is composed of the skull, spinal column, ribs, and breastbone (sternum)
appendicular skeleton forms the extremities and is composed of the shoulder girdle, arm bones, pelvic girdle and leg bones
cranium the spherical structure that surrounds and protects the brain
fontanels spaces at birth in the cranium called "soft spots" that allow for the enlargement of the skull as brain growth occurs
sutures the area where cranial bones come together
sinuses air spaces in the bones of the skull that act as resonating chambers for the voice
foramina openings in the bones that allow nerves and blood vessels to enter or leave the bone
vertebrae the bones of the spinal column that provide support for the head and trunk
ribs also known as costae. They attach to the thoracic vertebrae on the dorsal surface of the body
sternum breastbone
clavicles collarbones
scapulas shoulder bones
humerus upper arm bone
radius lower arm bone on the thumb side
ulna larger lower arm bone forming the elbow
olecranon process the projection on the ulna that forms the elbow on the upper end
carpals wrist bones
metacarpals bones of the palm of the hand
phalanges finger bones or toe bones
os coxae 2 hip bones that make up the pelvic girdle
symphysis pubis the joint at which the os coxae join together on the ventral side of the body
femur thigh bone
patella knee cap
tibia larger weight bearing bone of the lower leg commonly known as the shin bone
fibula the slender smaller bone of the lower leg that attaches to the proximal end of the tibia
tarsals ankle bones
metatarsals instep of foot bones
calcaneous heel bone
ilium large bone of the pelvic girdle forming your hips
ishium bone in the pelvic girdle that forms the lower part of the pelvis. It is the bone you are sitting on
pubic bone bone on the ventral side of the body that connects the 2 sides of the pelvic girdle together
manubrium upper region of the sternum
body middle of the sternum
xiphoid process small piece of cartilage at the bottom of the sternum
Cervical vertebrae first 7 bones in the spinal column located in the neck
Thoracic vertebrae vertebrae of the spinal column below the cervical vertebrae. There are 12 thoracic vertebrae. These are located in the chest region and are where the ribs attach
Lumbar vertebrae located below the thoracic vertebrae at the area of the waist. There are 5 of them
Sacrum 1 located below the lumbar vertebrae in the back of the pelvic girdle
Coccyx tailbone
True ribs 1st 7 pairs of ribs called true because they attach directly to the sternum in the front of the body and in the back to the first 7 thoracic vertebrae
False ribs next five pairs of ribs. They do not attach to the breast bone. The first 3 attach to the cartilage of the ribs above them. The last 2 do not connect to the sternum at all
Floating ribs the last 2 ribs that do not attach in the front of the body, just in the back
Created by: TeacherHSTE