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Neuroanatomy

HT and Limbic System

QuestionAnswer
The limbic system is responsible for responses such as ______, ______, ______ behavior, drives, emotion
The limbic system is interposed between the ______ and the ______ hypothalamus, cortex
The structures of the limbic system serve as a bridge between ______ and ______ responses to changes in the environment autonomic, voluntary
The Hypothalamus is a small part of the _______ diencephalon
The Hypothalamus coordinates _____ related behavior drive
The Hypothalamus is designed to maintain out ______ environment ( homeostasis ) internal
The Hypothalamic connections are in 3 principle categories: Imterconnections with the ____ system, outputs to the _____ gland, and interconnections with various visceral and somatic nuclei of the _____ and _____ limbic, pituitary, brainstem and spinal cord
Hypothalamic general anatomy is subdivided longitudinally into 3 regions, the ______, _____, and _____ regions anterior, tuberal, and posterior
The anterior region is above the _____ _____ optic chiasm
The tuberal region is above and including the _____ _______ tuber cinereum
The posterior region is located at the _____ _____ mammillary bodies
The hypothalamus is further divided into _____ and _____ zones, fornix medial, lateral
Hypothalmic functions include maintaining _____ and controlling the _____ _____ homeostasis, pituitary gland
The pituitary gland secretes the _____ hormone (vasopressin) which retains water decreasing urine, and _____ which stimulates uterine contractions and milk production antidiuretic, oxytocin
Hypothalamic centers have been implicated in ____, _____ behavior, regulating temperature, ___ motility, sexual activity, and numerous other functions. feeding, drinking, gut
These behaviors can be elicited by stimulating the appropiate ______ structures as well. brainstem
Hypothalamus when stimulated initiates _____ activity in other parts of the CNS, which in turn causes the behavior pattern. neural
Many of these same behaviors can be elicited by stimulation of _______. amygdala
Loosely oragnized and small therefore discrete lesions affecting specific functions are rare, lesions must be _____ to disrupt most hypothalamic function to see sxs bilateral
Overall control of the ANS anteriorly: has ______ responses, posteriorly has ______ responses, there is an overlap of the two parasympathetic, sympathetic
In animal studies anterior stimulation caused _____, cutaneous _____, decrease in body ______, bilateral lesions: unable to dissipate _____ sweating, vasodilation, temperature, heat
In animal studies posterior stimulation caused cutaneous _______, shivering, increased _____, bilateral lesion: unable to ______ body temperature vasoconstriction, temperature, regulate
In animal studies bilateral destruction to the ________ nucleus caused overeating ventromedial
In animal studies bilateral destruction to the ____ _______( tuberal region ) caused no eating, potentially starve to death lateral hypothalamus
Cats with bilateral destruction to the _______ nucleus over eat, get fat and become extremely nasty, hissing rages at the most innocuous stimuli ventromedial
The limbic system is interposed between the ____ and the _____ hypothalamus, cortex
The limbic system is originally thought to be involved with the sesnse of ____ smell
Broca 1878 found a horseshoe shaped rim surrounding the junction between the ______ and ______ ______ diencephalon, cerebral hemispheres
The base of the arc Broca found was joined by _____ areas with the _____ tract and bulb projecting anteriorly like a handle olfactory, olfactory
We know the limbic system is used for _______ memory
Limbic structures consist of _____ _____, _______ ____, _____, ______, and _____ _____ cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, septal nuclei
Some include _______, _____ ____ formation, and _____ areas with the limbic structures. hypothalamus, midbrain reticular, olfactory
Oversimplified circuit: ______ circuit is hippocampus --> fornix --> mammilary body --> anterior thalamic nucleus --> cingulate gyrus --> parahippocampal gyrus (entorhinal cortex ) Papez
The enthorhinal cortex: imputs from the _____, cingulate gyrus, orbital cortex, amygdala, and other areas of the ______ lobe. _______ receives almost all types of sensory information. olfactory, temporal, hippocampus
The ________ is involved in explicit memomry, knowledge and remembering events. hippocampus
Short term or working memory (procedural) comes from the ______ _____ prefrontal cortex
Long term memory (declarative) comes from many places including Implicit: skills and habit --> ______, _______, and ______, emotional associations --> ________conditioned reflexes --> ________Explicit:Remembering events --> _______Knowing facts --> ______ basal ganglia, motor cortex, cerebellum, amygdala, cerebellum, hippocampus, hippocampus
Hippocampus deficits unilateral lesions cause language related memory loss = _____ anomia
Hippocampus deficits CA1 include _____ disease and _______ amnesia alzheimer's, anterograde
Mammillary bodies are responsible for memory. ______ psychosis has intact intelligence, but unable to form new memories, makes up answers when asked questions. Also called amnestic confabulatory syndrome. Korsakoff's
Because all outputs from hippocampus do not all travel through the ______, damage to this structure does not cause major impairments in memory. fornix
________ is located at the anterior end of the hippocampus Amygdala
The Amygdala was considered at one time to be the part of the _____ _____. Amygdala has some inputs to the striatum. basal ganglia
The Amygdala receives great deal of sensory inputs from several locations. ______ inputs are especially prominent. olfactory
Amygdala projects to the ____ ____ and _____ cerebral cortex, hypothalamus
The Amygdala attaches _____ relevance to experience, memories, and internal stimuli. emotional
The Amygdala controls higher order modulation of the ______ hypothalamus
The Amygdala aides in learning whether a fact is " ____" or "___" good, bad
The Amygdala decides which facts become ______. Facts associated with strong emotion are more likely to be _______. memory, remembered
Amygdala deficits include extreme behaviors, docility --> _____. Bilateral damage causes a large decrease in ________. rage, aggression
____ _____ syndrome - bilateral damage to temporal lobes, amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus. Kulver Bucy
Some sxs of Kulver Bucy Syndrome are: psychic ______ (visual agnosia), ______ tendcies, ____ - approach all objects without caution, dietary habit changes - compulsive eating, ______ behavior without preference. blindness, hyperoral, docility, hypersexual
Created by: txst fall 2008 on 2008-10-31



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