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Chapter 4 Vocabulary

asexual reproduction a type of reproduction-fission, budding, and regeneration-in which a new organism is produced from one organism and has DNA identical to the parent organism
chromosome structure in a cell's nucleus that contains hereditary material
diploid cell whose similar chromosomes occur in pairs
DNA deoxyribnucleic acid; the genetic material of all organisms; made up of two twisted strands of sugar phosphate molecules and nitrogen bases
egg haploid sex cell formed in the female reproduction, the joining of a sperm and egg
fertilization in sexual reproduction, the joining of a sperm and egg
gene section of DNA on a chromosome that contains instructions for making specific proteins
haploid cell that has half the number of chromosomes as body cells
meiosis reproductive process that produces four haploid sex cells from one diploid cell and ensures offspring will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent organisms
mitosis cell process in which the nucleus divides to form two nuclei identical to each other and identical to the original nucleus in a series of steps
mutation any permanent change in a gene or chromosome or a cell; may be beneficial, harmful, or have little effect on an organism
RNA ribonucleic acid; a type of nucleic acid that carries codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes
sexual reproduction a type of reproduction in which two sex cells, usually an egg and a sperm, join to form a zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity
sperm haploid sex cell formed in male reproductive organs
zygote new diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg; it will divide by mitosis and develop into a new organism
Created by: jrobertson1