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Weather Unit

Atmosphere : a mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth.
Nitrogen The most abundant gas in our atmosphere
Carbon dioxide A greenhouse gas that has dramatically increased in our atmosphere
Troposphere The first layer of the atmosphere, we live here, almost all weather occurs here.
Stratosphere: The second layer of the atmosphere, most airplanes fly in this layer.
Mesosphere : The third layer of the atmosphere, it is the coldest layer.
Thermosphere The fourth layer of the atmosphere, the aurora borealis occurs here.
Exosphere The outer edge of Earth’s atmosphere, atoms and molecules escape into space here.
Water cycle The continuous movement of water from the land, to the atmosphere, and back to land again.
Evaporation Occurs when liquid changes into water vapor
Precipitation Occurs when rain, snow, sleet, or hail falls from the clouds onto Earth’s surface.
Condensation Occurs when water vapor cools and changes from a gas to a liquid. Clouds form by this process.
Transpiration The process where plants lose water
Runoff is water, usually from precipitation, that flows across land and collects in rivers, streams, and eventually the ocean.
Thermal Conduction the transfer of energy as heat through a material.
Convection the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas.
Cumulus clouds Puffy, white clouds that tend to have flat bottoms. They form when warm air rises.
Stratus clouds clouds that form in layers, they typically cover a large portion of the sky. They are often associated with precipitation
Cirrus : thin, feathery, white clouds that are found at high altitudes
Nimbus: clouds that have precipitation falling out of them.
Cumulonimbus a thick puffy cloud that has precipitation falling out of it.
Cloud a collection of small water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air, which forms when the air is cooled and condensation occurs.
Greenhouse effect the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases absorb and reradiate thermal energy.
Global warming a gradual increase in average global temperature
Weather The condition of the atmosphere at a particular place, over a short period of time.
Climate The average weather conditions in: an area over a long period of time.
Relative humidity : The amount of water vapor in the air compared with the maximum amount of water vapor air can hold at a certain temperature.
Acid rain rain that contains a high concentration of acids.
Jet stream: a narrow belt of strong winds that blow in the upper troposphere
Doldrums : the ocean belt near the equator, characterized by calms and light, variable winds, or the characteristic weather of this region.
Westerlies: prevailing winds that blow from west to east between 30 – 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres
Trade winds prevailing winds that blow from east to west from 30 – 60 latitude to the equator in both hemispheres
Coriolis effect : the apparent curving of the path of a moving object from an otherwise straight path due to the Earth’s rotation
Air mass A large body of air where temperature and moisture are constant throughout
Wind The movement of air caused by differences in air pressure
Front the boundary of air masses of different densities and usually different temperatures.
Cold front the advancing edge of a mass of cold dense air as it displaces warmer air
Warm front the advancing edge of a mass of warm air that rises over colder air, usu. causing steady precipitation.
Stationary front When a warm or cold front stops moving
Lightning : an electric discharge that takes place between two oppositely charged surfaces, such as between a cloud and the ground, between two clouds, or between two parts of the same cloud.
Tornado a destructive, rotating column of air that has very high wind speeds, is visible as a funnel-shaped cloud, and touches the ground
Hurricane : A severe storm that develops over tropical oceans whose strong winds of more than 120 km/h spiral in toward the intensely low pressure storm center
Barometer an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
Anemometer : an instrument used to measure wind speed
Created by: Wattsr