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Additive gene action when total phenotypic effect is the sum of the individual effects of the alleles
Alleles one of tow or more alternative forms of a gene occupying corresponding sites(loci) on homologous chromosomes
Biotechnology a collective set of tools and applications of living organisms to make or modify products, improve plants or animals, or develop microorganisms for specific uses
Breed animals with common ancestry that have distinguishable, fixed characteristics;when mated with others of the breed, they produce offspring with the same characteristics
Crossbreeding mating animals of diverse genetic backgrounds (breeds) within a species
EPD (expected progeny difference); equal to half the breeding value for an animal
Epistasis interaction among genes at different loci; expression of genes at one locus depends on alleles present at one or more other loci
Gametes mature sperm in the male and the egg or ova in the female; the reproductive cells
Gene a short segment of a chromosome; genes direct the synthesis of proteins or perform regulatory functions
Genetic engineering tern used to describe the technologies for moving genes from one animal to another
Genome the complete genetic material of an organism
Genotype the genetic makeup of an organism
Heritability measure of the proportion of phenotypic variation that is caused by additive gene effects; proportion of differences between individuals that is genetic
Heterosis superiority of an outbred individual relative to the average performance of the parent populations included in the cross
Homologous chromosomes chromosomes with the same size and shape, occurring in pairs, and affecting the same traits
Homozygous when two genes of a pair are the same
Inbreeding mating system in which mated individuals have one common ancestor appearing several times at least three to four generations
Outbreeding process of mating less closely related individuals when compared to the average of the population
F1 two-breed cross animals
Phenotypic value measure of individual performance for a specific unit
Selection process of allowing some animals to be parents more than others
Breed type distinctive features (such as form, head, color, and markings) in which one breed differs from another
Conformation physical from of an animal; its shape an arrangement of parts
Cull to eliminate one or more animals from a herd or flock
Full(Half) Sibs animals have the same sire and dam (full), or one parent in common(half)
Pedigree record of the ancestry of an animal
Purebred animal eligible for registry with a recognized breed organization
Scrub a very inferior animal in breeding and conformation; ancestry unknown
Created by: David55900