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DS 774

Exam 1 Flash Cards

Electronic Commerce The process of buying, selling, or exchanging products, services, or information via computer networks.
E-Business A broader definition of EC that includes not just the buying and selling of goods and services, but also servicing customers, collaborating with business partners, and conducting electronic transactions within an organization.
Brick-and-Mortar (Old-Economy) Organizations Old-economy organizations (corporations) that perform their primary business off-line, selling physical products by means of physical agents.
Virtual (Pure-Play) Organizations Organizations that conduct their business activities solely online.
Click-and-Mortar (Click-and-Brick) Organizations Organizations that conduct some e-commerce activities, usually as an additional marketing channel.
Electronic Market (E-Marketplace) An online marketplace where buyers and sellers meet to exchange goods, services, money, or information.
Inter-organizational Information Systems (IOSs) Communications systems that allow routine transaction processing and information flow between two or more organizations.
Intra-organizational Information Systems Communication systems that enable e-commerce activities to go on within individual organizations.
Intranet An internal corporate or government network that uses Internet tools, such as Web browsers, and Internet protocols.
Extranet A network that uses the Internet to link multiple intranets.
Business-to-Business (B2B) E-commerce model in which all of the participants are businesses or other organizations.
Business-to-Consumer (B2C) E-commerce model in which businesses sell to individual shoppers.
E-Tailing Online retailing, usually B2C.
Business-Business-Consumer (B2B2C) E-commerce model in which a business provides some product or service to a client business that maintains its own customers.
Consumer-to-Business (C2B) E-commerce model in which individuals use the Internet to sell products or services to organizations or individuals who seek sellers to bid on products or services they need.
Mobile Commerce (M-Commerce) E-commerce transactions and activities conducted in a wireless environment.
Location-Based Commerce (L-Commerce) M-commerce transactions targeted to individuals in specific locations, at specific times.
Intra-business Electronic Commerce E-commerce category that includes all internal organizational activities that involve the exchange of goods, services, or information among various units and individuals in an organization.
Business-to-Employees (B2E) E-commerce model in which an organization delivers services, information, or products to its individual employees.
Collaborative Commerce (C-Commerce) E-commerce model in which individuals or groups communicate or collaborate online.
Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) E-commerce model in which consumers sell directly to other consumers).
Peer-to-Peer Technology that enables networked peer computers to share data and processing with each other directly; can be used in C2C, B2B, and B2C e-commerce.
E-Learning The online delivery of information for purposes of training or education.
E-Government E-commerce model in which a government entity buys or provide goods, services, or information from or to businesses or individual citizens.
Exchange A public electronic market with many buyers and sellers.
Exchange-to-Exchange (E2E) E-commerce model in which electronic exchanges formally connect to one another for the purpose of exchanging information.
Digital Economy An economy that is based on digital technologies, including digital communication networks, computers, software, and other related information technologies; also called the Internet economy, the new economy, or the Web economy.
Business Model A method of doing business by which a company can generate revenue to sustain itself.
Revenue Model Description of how the company or an EC project will earn revenue.
Value Proposition The benefits a company can derive from using EC.
Tendering (bidding) System Model in which a buyer requests would-be sellers to submit bids; the lowest bidder wins.
Name-your-own-price Model Model in which a buyer sets the price he or she is willing to pay and invites sellers to supply the good or service at that price.
Affiliate Marketing An arrangement whereby a marketing partner (a business, an organization, or even an individual) refers to consumers to the selling company's Website.
Viral Marketing Word-of-mouth marketing in which customers promote a product or service to friends or other people.
SMEs Small-to-medium enterprises.
Group Purchasing Quantity (aggregated) purchasing that enables groups of purchasers to obtain a discount price on the products purchased.
E-Co-Ops Another name for online group purchasing organizations.
Customization Creation of a product or service according to the buyer's specifications.
Social Networks Web sites that connect people with specified interests by providing free services such as photo presentation, e-mail, blogging, etc.
Digital Enterprise A new business model that uses IT in a fundamental way to accomplish one or more of three basic objectives: reach and engage customers more effectively, boost employee productivity, and improve operating efficiency. It uses converged communication and com
Corporate Portal A major gateway through which employees, business partners, and the public can enter a corporate Web site.
E-Marketplace An online market, usually B2B, in which buyers and sellers exchange goods or services; the three types of e-marketplaces are private, public, and consortia.
Marketspace A marketplace in which sellers and buyers exchange goods and services for money (or for other goods and services) but do so electronically.
Digital Products Goods that can be transformed to digital format and delivered over the Internet.
Front End The portion of an e-seller's business processes through which customers interact, including the sellers portal, electronic catalogs, a shopping cart, a search engine, and a payment gateway.
Back End The activities that support online order fulfillment, inventory management, purchasing from suppliers, payment processing, packaging, and delivery.
Intermediary A third party that operates between sellers and buyers.
Storefront A single company's Web site where products or services are sold.
E-Mall (online mall) An online shopping center where many online stores are located.
Private E-Marketplaces Online markets owned by a single company; may be either sell-side and/or buy-side marketplaces.
Sell-Side E-Marketplaces A private e-marketplace in which one company sells either standard and/or customized products to qualified companies.
Buy-Side E-Marketplaces A private e-marketplace in which one company makes purchases from invited suppliers.
Public E-Marketplaces B2B marketplaces, usually owned and/or managed by an independent third party, that include many sellers and many buyers; also known as exchanges.
Information Portal A single point of access through a Web browser to business information inside and/or outside an organization.
Mobile Portal A portal accessible via a mobile device.
Voice Portal A portal accessed by telephone or cell phone.
Infomediaries Electronic intermediaries that provide and/or control information flow in cyberspace, often aggregating information and selling it to others.
E-Distributor An e-commerce intermediary that connects manufacturers with business buyers (customers) by aggregating the catalogs of many manufacturers in one place-the intermediary's Web site.
Disintermediation Elimination of intermediaries between sellers and buyers.
Reintermediation Establishment of new intermediary roles for traditional intermediaries that have been disintermediated, or for newcomers.
Electronic Catalogs The presentation of product information in an electronic form; the backbone of most e-selling sites.
Search Engine A computer program that can access databases of Internet resources, search for specific information or keywords, and report the results.
Software (Intelligent) Agent Software that can perform routine tasks that require intelligence.
Electronic Shopping Cart An order-processing technology that allows customers to accumulate items they wish to buy while the continue to shop.
Auction A competitive process in which a seller solicits consecutive bids from buyers (forward auctions) or a buyer solicits bids from sellers (backward auctions). Prices are determined dynamically by the bids.
Electronic Auction (E-Auction) Auctions conducted online.
Dynamic Pricing Prices that change based on supply and demand relationships at any given time.
Forward Auction An auction in which a seller entertains bids from buyers. Bidders increase price sequentially.
Reverse Auction (Bidding or Tendering System) Auction in which the buyer places an item for bid (tender) on a request for quote (RFQ) system, potential suppliers bid on the job, with the price reducing sequentially, and the lowest bid wins; primarily a B2B or G2B mechanism.
"Name your own Price" Model Auction model in which a would-be buyer specifies the price (and other terms) he or she is willing to pay to any willing and able seller. It is a C2B model that was pioneered by Priceline.com.
Double Auction Auctions in which multiple buyers and their bidding prices are matched with multiple sellers and their asking prices, considering the quantities on both sides.
E-Bartering (Electronic Bartering) Bartering conducted online, usually in a bartering exchange.
Bartering Exchange A marketplace in which an intermediary arranges barter transactions.
Mobile Computing Use or portable devices, including smart cell phones, usually in a wireless environment. It permits real-time access to information, applications, and tools that, until recently, were accessible only from a desktop computer.
Mobile Commerce (M-Commerce) E-commerce conducted via wireless devices.
M-Business The broadest definition of m-commerce, in which e-business is conducted in a wireless environment.
Location-Based Commerce (LBC) An m-commerce application targeted to a customer whose location, preferences, and needs are known in real time.
Internet Ecosystem The business model of the Internet economy.
Differentiation Providing a product or service that is unique.
Personalization The ability to tailor a product, service, or Web content to specific user preferences.
Competitive Forces Model Model devised by Porter says that five major forces of competition determine industry structure and how economic value is divided among the industry; analysis of these forces helps companies develop their competitive strategy.
Build-to-Order (Pull System) A manufacturing process that starts with an order (usually customized). Once the order is paid for, the vendor starts to fulfill it.
Electronic Retailing (e-tailing) Retailing conducted online, over the Internet.
E-tailers Retailers who sell over the Internet.
Direct Marketing Broadly, marketing that takes place without intermediaries between manufacturers and buyers; in the context of this book, marketing done online between any seller and buyer.
Virtual (Pure-Play) E-tailers Firms that sell directly to consumers over the Internet without maintaining a physical sales channel.
Click-and-Mortar Retailers Brick-and-Mortar retailers that offer a transactional Web site from which to conduct business.
Brick-and-Mortar Retailers Retailers who do business in the non-Internet, physical world in traditional brick-and-mortar stores.
Multichannel Business Model A business model where a company sells in multiple marketing channels simultaneously (e.g. both physical and online stores).
Electronic (Online) Banking (E-Banking) Various banking activities conducted from home or the road using an Internet connection; also known as cyber-banking, virtual banking, online banking, and home banking.
E-Grocer A grocer that takes orders online and provides deliveries on a daily or other regular schedule or within a very short period of time.
On-Demand Delivery Service Express delivery made fairly quickly after an online order is received.
Shopping Portals Gateways to e-storefronts and e-malls; may be comprehensive or niche oriented.
Shopping Robots (Shopping Agents Or Shopdots) Tolls that scout the Web on behalf of consumers who specify search criteria.
Disintermediation The removal of organizations or business process layers responsible for certain intermediary steps in a given supply chain.
Reintermediation The process whereby intermediaries (either new ones or those that had been disintermediated) take on new intermediary roles.
Cybermediation (Electronic Intermediation) The use of software (intelligent) agents to facilitate intermediation.
Hypermediation Extensive use of both human and electronic intermediation to provide assistance in all phases of an e-commerce venture.
Channel Conflict Situation in which an online marketing channel upsets the traditional channels due to real or perceived damage from competition.
One-to-One Marketing Marketing that treats each customer in a unique way.
Market Segmentation The process of dividing a consumer market into logical groups for conducting marketing research and analyzing personal information.
Personalization The matching of services, products, and advertising content with individual consumers and their preferences.
User Profile The requirements, preferences, behaviors, and demographic traits of a particular customer.
Cookie A data file that is placed on a user's hard drive by a remote Web server, frequently without disclosure or the user's consent, that collects information about the user's activities at a site.
E-Loyalty Customer loyalty to an e-tailer or loyalty programs delivered online or supported electronically.
Trust The psychological status of willingness to depend on another person or organization.
Transaction Log A record of user activities at a company's Web site.
Clickstream Behavior Customer movements on the Internet.
Web Bugs Tiny graphics files embedded in e-mail messages and in Web sites that transmit information about users and their movements to a Web server.
Spyware Software that gathers user information over an Internet connection without the user's knowledge.
Clickstream Data Data that occur inside the Web environment; they provide a trail of the user's activities (the user's clickstream behavior) in the Web site.
Web Mining Data mining techniques for discovering and extracting information from Web documents. Web mining explores both Web Content and Web Usage.
Collaborative Filtering A market research and personalization method that uses customer data to predict, based on formulas derived from behavioral sciences, what other products or services a customer may enjoy; predictions can be extended to other customers with similar profiles
Biometrics An individual's unique physical or behavioral characteristics that can be used to identify an individual precisely (e.g. fingerprints).
Interactive Marketing Online marketing, facilitated by the Internet, by which marketers and advertisers can interact directly with customers and consumers can interact with advertisers/vendors.
Ad Views The number of times users call up a page that has a banner on it during a specific period; known as impressions or page views.
Button A small banner that is linked to a Web site. It may contain downloadable software.
Page An HTML document that may contain text, images, and other online elements, such as Java applets and multimedia files. It may be generated statically or dynamically.
Click (click-through or ad click) A count made each time a visitor clicks on an advertising banner to access the advertiser's Web site.
CPM (Cost per Thousand Impressions) The fee an advertiser pays for each 1,000 times a page with a banner ad is shown.
Conversion Rate The percentage of clickers who actually make a purchase.
Click-Through Rate The percentage of visitors who are exposed to a banner ad and click on it.
Click-Through Ratio The ratio between the number of clicks on a banner ad and the number of times it is seen by viewers; measures the success of a banner in attracting visitors to click on the ad.
Hit A request for data from a Web page or file.
Visit A series of requests during one navigation of a Web site; a pause of a certain length of time ends a visit.
Unique Visits A count of the number of visitors entering a site, regardless of how many pages are viewed per visit.
Stickiness Characteristic that influences the average length of time a visitor stays in a site.
Advertising Networks Specialized firms that offer customized Web advertising, such as brokering ads and targeting ads to select groups of customers.
Banner On a web page, a graphic advertising display linked to the advertiser's Web page.
Keyword Banners Banner ads that appear when a predetermined word is queried from a search engine.
Random Banners Banner ads that appear at random, not as the result of the user's action.
Banner Swapping An agreement between two companies to each display the other's banner ad on its Web site.
Banner Exchanges Markets in which companies can trade or exchange placement of banner ads on each other's Web sites.
Pop-Up Ads An ad that appears in a separate window before, after, or during Internet surfing or when reading email.
Pop-Under Ads An ad that appears underneath the current browser window, so when the user closes the active window the ad is still on the screen.
Interstitial An initial Web page or a portion of it that is used to capture the user's attention for a short time while other content is loading.
Associated Ad Display (text links) An advertising strategy that displays a banner ad related to a key term entered in a search engine.
Advertorial An advertisement "disguised" to look like editorial content or general information.
Advergaming The practice of using computer games to advertise a product, an organization, or a viewpoint.
Affiliate Marketing A marketing arrangement by which an organization refers consumers to the selling company's Web site.
Viral Marketing Word-of-Mouth marketing by which customers promote a product or service by telling others about it.
Webcasting A free Internet news service that broadcasts personalized news and information, including seminars, in categories selected by the user.
Admediaries Third-party vendors that conduct promotions, especially large-scale ones.
Spamming Using e-mail to send unwanted ads (sometimes floods of ads).
Permission Advertising (Permission Marketing) Advertising (marketing) strategy in which customers agree to accept advertising and marketing materials.
Ad Management Methodology and software that enable organizations to perform a variety of activities involved in Web advertising (e.g., tracking viewers, rotating ads).
Localization The process of converting media products developed in one environment (e.g. country) to a form culturally and linguistically acceptable in countries outside the original target market.
Internet Radio A Web site that provides music, talk, and other entertainment, both live and stored, from a variety of radio stations.
Avatars Animated computer characters that exhibit humanlike movements and behaviors.
Social Computing An approach aimed at making the human-computer interface more natural.
Chatterbots Animation characters that can talk (chat).
Created by: bradbrown1122