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8C Breathing & Resp

Key words

Aerobic respiration Oxygen + glucose --> water + carbon dioxide + energy
Carbohydrate Energy source made from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Combustion Burning
Glucose C6H12O6 small carbohydrate, type of sugar
Alveolus A single alveoli in the lungs where gas exchange takes place
Breathing The movement of muscles that makes the lungs expand and contract
Bronchus One of two bronchi (left and right) that branch off to the left and right lung
Cilia Hair like structures on the surface of the cell
Ciliated epithelial cell Skin cell lining the tubes leading to the lungs that contain cilia
Diaphragm Main muscle responsible for inhalation when it contracts
Gas exchange Diffusion of oxygen into (21%-->18%) and carbon dioxide out of (4%-->0.04%) the blood
Mucus Sticky liquid produced by goblet cells to trap dust and microbes
Trachea Also called windpipe. Carries air to and from lungs.
Ventilation The movement of air in and out of your lungs
Asthma A condition in which the tiny tubes leading to the alveoli become narrow and start to fill with mucus
Carbon monoxide A poisonous gas produced by carbon burning with enough oxygen. Found in cigarette smoke.
Emphysema A disease in which the lungs cannot take much oxygen out of the air because the walls of the alveoli have broken down
Heart attack When heart muscle cells start to die
Heart disease A disease caused by the narrowing of the coronary artery carrying blood to the heart
Mitochondria Organelle of cell where respiration occurs
Tissue fluid Leaked plasma fluid outside the capillaries that carries oxygen and nutrients to the cells
Gills Flaps of tissue that have blood and water in countercurrent exchange
Countercurrent exchange Causing flow in opposite directions to allow maximum diffusion or transfer of energy
Hydrocarbon indicator A pH indicator from pink to yellow when carbon dioxide levels go above 0.04%
Indicator A substance that changes colour in solutions of different acidity and alkalinity
Limewater A solution of calcium hydroxide that turns milky in the presence of carbon dioxide
Photosynthesis Water + carbon dioxide + energy --> glucose + oxygen
Stoma Tiny holes in leaves that allow for gas exchange
Tar A sticky substance from cigarette smoke that contains carcinogenic substances
Aerobic exercise An exercise where all the energy needed can be supplied by aerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration A type of respiration that does not need oxygen
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) The need for extra oxygen after exercise to break down lactic acid and replace the oxygen lost from blood and muscle cells
Oxygen debt See EPOC
Created by: andrewweng0406