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MICABI - Exam1

Lecture 1

List constitutional (non specific) symptoms Fever ( T >37oC = 98.6oF), Headaches, myalgias, chills, nausea, sweating, mental status changes (confusion), dehydration and delirium in severe cases; Swelling, erythema, tenderness, purulent discharge, sputum production; ↑ WBC (high percentage of neutrop
Gram negative cocci (2) Morexella catarrhalis, Neisseria meningitidis
Gram negative bacilli (8) Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella spp., Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens
Gram positive cocci (3) Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.
Gram positive bacilli (2) Clostridium spp., Listeria monocytogenes
Misc/Atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydiae spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum
Classification of Morexella catarrhalis Gram negative cocci
Classification of Neisseria meningitidis Gram negative cocci
Classification of Enterococcus spp. Gram positive cocci
Classification of Staphylococcus spp. Gram positive cocci
Classification of Streptococcus spp. Gram positive cocci
Classification of Enterobacter spp. Gram negative bacillus
Classification of Escherichia coli Gram negative bacillus
Classification of Haemophilus influenzae Gram negative bacillus
Classification of Klebsiella pneumoniae Gram negative bacillus
Classification of Legionella spp. Gram negative bacillus
Classificaiton of Proteus mirabilis Gram negative bacillus
Classification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram negative bacillus
Classification of Serratia marcescens Gram negative bacillus
Viruses Herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, HIV, hepatitis, influenzae, GI viruses, mumps, measles, rubella, small pox
Fungi Candida spp, Cryptococuss spp., Histoplasma spp, blastomyces spp, Aspergillus's spp, dermatophytes, Pneumocystis jeroveci
Parasites Toxoplasmosis, Giardia spp, Entomoeba spp, Trichomoniasis
Severe Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) ≥ 2 or more: T >38 C, HR >90 bpm, RR >20 or PCO2 <32mm Hg, WBC >12K or >10% bands
Sepsis SIRS with identified infection
Severe Sepsis Hypoperfusion (lactic acidosis, renal failure, mental status changes); Hypotension
Septic shock Severe sepsis with hypotension unresponsive to fluids, systolic BP <90 mm Hg
Classification of Clostridium spp. Gram positive bacillus
Classification of Listeria monocytogenes Gram positive bacillus
Βeta-lactams include these four subclasses Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Monobactams, Carbapenems
Penicillins - spectrum Mostly Gram-positive, but newer agents are more broad spectrum
Cephalosporins - 1st generation spectrum mostly gram positive
Cephalosporins - 2nd generation spectrum gram positive, some resistant gram negative, and anaerobes
Cephalosporins - 3rd and 4th generation spectrum broader spectrum
Monobactams Broad spectrums with anaerobes
Carbapenems Broad spectrums with anaerobes
Aminoglycosides Gram negative
Fluoroquinolones Broad spectrum with atypicals coverage
Macrolides Mostly gram positive, Selective Gram negative, Atypical coverage
Tetracycline Broad spectrum with anaerobes
Created by: Krafty