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Science 5

Chapter 9 Study Guide

Rocks change in a predictable pattern known as what? rock cycle
How can rocks from deep inside the earth's crust rise to the surface? volcanoes or earthquakes
How do igneous rocks form? when magma and lava cool
What do you call igneous rocks that cool quickly? extrusive
What do you call igneous rocks that cool slowly? intrusive
How do sedimentary rocks form? when small pieces of rocks, minerals, plants, and animals are deposited in layers
Give some examples of sedimentary rocks sandstone, shale, limestone, conglomerate
Which kind of rock can contain fossils? sedimentary
How does metamorphic rock form? heat and pressure
Give some examples of metamorphic rock marble, slate, gneiss
What is the lithosphere? the upper mantle and crust
What does the Theory of Plate Tectonics state? the lithosphere plates are floating on the top of the lower mantle
what kinds of natural disasters can be caused by the movement of plates? tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanoes
When do convergent boundaries occur? when they crash
When do divergent boundaries occur? pull apart
When do transform boundaries occur? slide past another
What is an echo sounder? an instrument placed on the bottom of a ship that uses sound waves to measure depth
What are three basic ares of the ocean? continental margins, deep ocean basin, and ocean ridges
What does the continental margin include? shelf and slope
What part of the ocean borders the continents? shelf
Large, flat sections of the ocean floor are called what? abyssal
Underwater volcanic mountains are called what? seamounts
Underwater valleys are called what? trenches
What do air and ocean currents distribute among the earth? heat
What are surface ocean currents driven by? temperature and wind
What causes deep ocean currents? water density and gravity
is colder water more or less dense? more
Is saltier water more or less dense? more
Which direction do ocean currents move in the Northern Hemisphere? clockwise
When can ocean currents cause irregular weather patterns? When ocean currents don't flow according to the normal patterns
What will come to the surface when an upwelling occurs? nutrients for fish to eat
How are the earth's magnetic poles different form the geographic poles? the magnetic poles move
What mineral can act as a natural compass with particles always pointing north? magnatite
The Mid Atlantic Ridge occurs at what kind of boundary? divergent
What are two common igneous rocks? granite and basalt
Created by: erfy97