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Science Module 15

Apol. Exp. Creation Lymphatic, Endocrine, & Urinary Sys. Mod 15

The ____ system removes excess fluid from your body's tissues and returns it to the bloodstream. lymphatic
The ____ system produces hormones that regulate several of the chemical processes occurring in your body. endocrine
The ____ system controls and regulates the balance of chemicals in your blood. urinary
What would happen if one of the lymphatic, endocrine, or urinary systems stopped working in your body? Without even one of these systems working properly, you would die in a very short time.
What do the lymph vessels do? They carry the watery fluid found in between your body's cells.
The clear fluid carried by the lymph vessels is called ____. interstitial fluid
What does the interstitial fluid do after it leaks out of the capillaries? It passes in and out of cells, facilitating the exchange of gases and nutrients between the cells and the blood.
The interstitial fluid must be _____, _____, then finally ____ to the blood. collected, cleaned, returned
Once the interstitial fluid is collected by the lymphatic system, it is no longer called “interstitial fluid.” Instead, it is called _____. lymph
What's the difference between interstitial fluid and lymph? When the fluid is still between your cells, it is interstitial fluid. When it enters your lymphatic system, it is called lymph.
Memorize and Label Human Lymphatic System (11 points) See Mom for diagram of Lymphatic System.
These are the “filters” where the lymph is cleaned before it is returned to the blood. lymph nodes
Area where many white blood cells grow and mature, and as blood passes through the it, the white blood cells clean it of pathogens, foreign matter, and dead tissue. spleen
These form a protective ring around the throat. They work together to produce and release antibodies that attack pathogens entering your body through your mouth or nose. tonsils and adenoids
This is still a bit of a puzzle to scientists. It definitely has lymphatic functions but it also has endocrine functions. thymus gland
A group of cells that prepare and release a chemical for use by the body. Gland
A chemist hands you two vials of a liquid. The chemist says that the liquids are identical in every way. However, the first vial contains lymph while the second vial does not. From where was the fluid in the first vial taken? The first vial of liquid was taken from a lymph vessel.
Removing the spleen will not kill or seriously harm the person. If this happens, what can you predict about the person's ability to fight off disease and infection? The person will not be able to fight off disease and infection quite as well as before the spleen was removed.
A person's left axillary lymph nodes are swollen. Using Figure 15.1 as a guide, predict where the person is (most likely) infected. The infection is probably in the left arm or upper left part of the body.
What are lymphocytes? White blood cells found in the lymph system.
What do B-cells do? Produce antibodies that attack specific disease-causing microorganisms.
What do T-cells do? They attack microorganisms directly.
____ scavenge the lymph, eating bacteria and other debris that has been targeted by the action of the lymphocytes. Macrophage cells
When an infection is detected by the lymph nodes, the ______ release lymphocytes. germinal centers
These memory cells are configured to start producing the same antibody again the moment the same infection is detected. memory B-cells
A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body's production of antibodies that can destroy the pathogen. Vaccine
The act of giving someone a vaccine is often called ____. immunization
If antibodies are ineffective against a pathogen, what other defenses can the lymph nodes use against it? Antibodies are produced by B-cells. There are also T-cells and macrophages that fight infection in different ways. The lymphatic system can use them instead.
For a given lymph node, which carries more lymph: an afferent lymph vessel or the efferent lymph vessel? The efferent lymph vessel carries more lymph.
The body produces tears in the ______ glands, which are located on the top and side of each eyeball. lacrimal
Tears run from the lacrimal glands through tiny tubes called ______ and then flow across the eyes. tear ducts
Are tear ducts part of the lymphatic system? No, they are part of the eye.
Each kidney is actually made up of about a million units called ______. nephrons
The _________ brings blood into the kidney. renal artery
The blood then leaves the kidney through the _______ and travels back to the heart. renal vein
The urine travels through the ureter and is held in the ________. bladder
Eventually, the bladder releases the urine it has stored, and the urine leaves the body through the ______. urethra
When a sick person uses an artificial kidney, we say that the person is on _____. dialysis
Typically, what happens during a dialysis treatment? Blood is taken from a vein and routed into a machine that attempts to filter and clean the blood as does a real kidney.
Suppose a person produces three quarts of urine each day. What can you conclude about the drinking habits of that person? Since the amount of water in the blood stays constant, the only way this person could produce more than the average amount of urine is by drinking more than the average amount of liquid.
The bladder is not really an essential part of the urinary system, but you should be glad it is there. Why? The bladder holds your urine so that you release a lot of it all at once. Without it, you would have a steady, slow stream of urine constantly running out of your body. That would be bad!
A chemical messenger released into the bloodstream that sends signals to distant cells, causing them to change their behavior in specific ways. Hormone
The _____ is one of the main regulators of the endocrine system and is part of the lower brain. hypothalamus
What does the hypothalamus regulate? It regulates thirst, hunger, and body temperature. It also helps initiate the “fight or flight” responses
What gland sits right below the hypothalamus in the brain. pituitary gland
What is the pituitary gland commonly called? It is referred to as the “master endocrine gland” because the hormones it makes and puts into the bloodstream control many other endocrine glands in the body.
The main thing the thyroid gland does is affect the ________. basal metabolic rate
What does the parathyroid gland do? Their main job is to regulate the level of calcium in the body.
The adrenal glands release ______. adrenocorticotropic hormones
The _______ are another set of endocrine glands controlled by the pituitary gland. adrenal glands
What does the adrenocorticotropic hormone do? Controls how the adrenal glands produce their hormone, cortisol
Although most scientists refer to the pituitary gland as the “master endocrine gland,” the hypothalamus could be considered the “master of the master.” Why? The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland.
Suppose a person's thyroid began producing too few hormones and the person gets tired and lethargic. If a doctor determines there are no problems with the thyroid itself, what should the doctor look at next? The doctor should look at the pituitary gland.
Created by: grantham10