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SSC1 Review

Review for SSC1 Assessment

Describe some of the major areas of study in the social sciences. Psychology - Study of human behavior Sociology - Study of how people react and adapt in certain environments Anthropology - study of the relationship between biological traits and social traits Geography - study of the world such as the land & water
What was the main debate among scholars in the social science department? what forms a human beings behavior and how they adapt to their environment.
What factors do you think are the most important in shaping a human being? Their environment, traits, and how they interact with others.
How do the textbook authors define the scientific method? A series of steps that must be taken when doing an experiment to be able to come to a conclusion to see if the researcher is correct.
What are some of the major challenges encountered in any form of scientific observation? that everything must be accurate, precise and being able to be in a controlled condition.
What is the role of objectivity in scientific work? scientists can't have any personal attitudes, beliefs, or values toward their findings.
Do social scientists form hypotheses? Yes. They are able to test their theory (explanation - specific situation) to be able to make a prediction of what is going to happen to that theory.
What are some of the most significant researcher methods in social sciences (case study, participant observation, etc.)? The experimental method and statistical analysis. The experimental is either in the field or laboratory and it is controlled conditions. Statistics simplify the information and makes the researchers make decisions on their research.
What are the distinctive features of cultural anthropology? It is the study of humans in their societies. It deals with the human culture and how they deal with others in a group and what happens if something changes within that group such as music or their linguistics.
What kinds of questions do economists ask about the nature of society? How society solves poverty how to get it, make it, distribute it (goods) Resources for supply Need for demand
What kinds of questions do psychologists ask about human development? What shapes and motivates individuals? What forms their minds and personalities?
Why have social scientists concerned themselves with social classes? the vast differences in lifestyles of different groups of people are.
How does sociology differ from psychology? Sociology studies a group of people in a society and psychology deals with the individual.
What kinds of research do political scientists conduct? Deals with the study of power and make sure that institution maintains order, make decisions and to provide for defense
How does the study of history differ from other social sciences? History is mainly for recording human events for future generations and it's impossible to interpret the present and speculate the future without reference to the past.
What are some explanatory limitations for historical research? Historical research can't do any research using the scientific method but they are able to study systematically a sequence of related events to verify and establish a meaningful relationship.
In what ways can social science explain social inequality? The stratification system is based on power, wealth, and prestige which leads to social inequality.
What is social stratification? It s how society is divided by wealth, prestige, and power.
What are some reasons for the existence of poverty and homelessness in a world of plenty? Single family parents, unemployment, substance abuse, low paying jobs, mental illness
In what ways does social science influence social and public policy? It tells what different groups of people there are and what class they belong to as well as the group of people they are around.
What are the central claims of the theory of evolution? Primates among mammals changed appearance leading eventually, through apes to modern humans. Scientists found this through fossil records and studies.
How has the theory of natural selection shaped the social science views of human behavior? Having offspring that are able to adapt to the environment around them and they are able to survive. Different environment surroundings can change human behavior either by what class they are in or what social groups they are around or belong to.
Why is the study of genetics significant to social science? It is like a blueprint of how we should appear and function within our environment.
What specific roles does biology play in the development of personality? Social and physical contact, biological drives (such as hunger and thirst), and accepting learning from others
How does learned behavior shape personality? Humans lack strong instinct, to a great extent they must learn how to act to their best advantage.
What do social scientists mean by socialization? Socialization is learning one's culture. Culture is to learn how to deal with one's environment and being able to adapt to one's environment learned.
What kinds of interplay exist between heredity and environment? They act on the personality that it's impossible to measure exactly the influence of either. What is certain is whether a person's full potential is developed depends on their social experience or environment in which they spend their life.
How does Sigmund Freud explain the development of personality? 5 Stages of Psychosexual stages: 1. Oral - first years of life 2. Anal - second and third years 3. Phallic/Oedipal - third to fifth year 4. Latency - ages 5 to beginning of adolescence 5. Genital - Puberty to Adult
What are the key elements of Erik Erikson's developmental theory? Psychosocial - Life Span Encompass the entire life of the individual and are more compatible with contemporary thought. Eight developmental stages that the individual's face with an identity crisis in which the self must try and to correct
On what issues do Freud and Erikson agree? Each individual goes through certain stages through their life. Starts off from the beginning of life until the end
On what issues do Freud and Erikson disagree? Erikson - Identity crisis and individuals have to correct more stages individuals go through (Psychosocial) Freud - Psychosexual stages and its is a personality development.
Stages of Erikson infancy, early childhood, play age, school age, adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood/ middle age, maturity
What are the key elements of Jean Piaget's Developmental theory? Cognitive Development - thinking ability logical and rational. Intellectual and moral development of an individuals physical maturation:
Stages of Jean Piaget (Cognitive Development) Stages: Sensory motor - birth to age 2 Preoperational stage - age 2 - 7 Concrete-operational stage - age 7 to 11 Formal-Operational stage - 11 to 16
How does Lawrence Kohlberg explain moral development? Individuals have a sense or right and wrong Preconventional - Individuals are able to define right and wrong Conventional - Socially approved values Postconventional - Acknowledge and attempt is made to resolve the conflict in a rational manner
How does conflict theory explain state development? Karl Marx is related to the conflict theory. The states emerged to protect the rights of privileged few.
How does functionalist theory explain state development? Result of a "social contract" made by the people to end their existence in a "state of nature" in which life was "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
How do the ideas of Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau differ concerning the nature of the state? Hobbs said that the states were formed by their "state of nature", practical Rousseau says that they were formed because it is to protect rights. Social contract, private property (noble savages)
How do totalitarian regimes maintain power? By having total control over an individual's life. Fear - spy on own people and people who didn't agree.
What is legal-rational authority? Weber had the idea or legal-rational authority where no one was above the law. Not a person in charge, law in charge, rule of law-not traditional authority, economic system, legal system
What are the major forms of government that have existed in modern history? What features distinguish them from each other? Socialism - democracy, share wealth public owned capital (public school). Important to not exclude people. Capitalism - democracy, capital products and services (private school). Can be privately owned (hospital, insurance)
What is an oligarchy? Small group of people having control over a country.
What is a timocracy? A form of government in which possessions of property is required to hold office or a government in which rulers are motivated by ambition or love of honor.
Which characteristics of democracy originated in ancient Greece? voting and public opinion
What were the distinctive features of citizenship in the city-states? small independent communities own unique identity citizens molded a fully rounded society into what they thought society should be
What were the limitations on democratic activity within a city-state? food demand didn't own any productive land turned more forceful and more direct roll
What are the defining features of the nation-state? A state ruling over a territory containing all of the people of a nation. Political culture which is a set of unwritten rules and unwritten ways in which written rules are interpreted and enforced along with the historic core areas.
How do educational institutions help maintain the nation-state? The schools teaches students about things beyond the classroom. Government educates in the laws and values they embody.
What philosophical ideas helped shape the modern nation-state? Rousseau laid the foundation for allegiance to the state as the people. He believed that in nature people were merely physical beings but when united with social contract they were capable of perfectibility.
Why was the rise of nationalism important in the development of the nation-state? Nationalism is a set of beliefs about the superiority and difference of one's own nation and a defense of its interests about all others. This was proved to be very powerful which people came to believe that the nationhood was combined and universal.
What are the defining features of modern bureaucracies? Structure: higher division of labors Creation: Bad choice, can change quickly
Why do bureaucracies exist? difficult to change the organizations, repetitive stuff
What is a nongovernmental organization (NGO)? Organized international interest groups that cross state boundaries and carry out direct actions to further their goals as well as put pressure on existing governments or states.
What functions do NGOs serve? Their day-to-day business is carried out by their bureaucracies and their decisions are negotiated by government representatives who are assigned to them.
What are some examples of NGOs? multi-national corporations, charitable and religious organizations, environmental organizations
Are multinational corporations NGOs? Yes Crossing boarders, creating ties, strengthening economic treading Short coming possibilities Economic and trade - territorial boundaries are less important. If process continues, weaking nation-states.
What are some other important types of non-state actors? Organization of American State (OAS) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Arab League
What are some examples of multi-national political organizations? How have they shaped the global society? NATO - a clause that binds the members to recognize an attack directed from abroad on any member as an attack on all members Marshall Plan - Encouraged economic cooperation among the European countries
What kinds of changes (at work and home) have individuals and groups experienced in the global society? Technology that changed it Mass shift instead of economy Industrial: percent of work force declining; industrial output inclining. new machines- fewer people to be needed to do this job Industrial Revolution - Families urbanize Changing Lives
Why are undereducated and unskilled laborers vulnerable in a global economy? Their wages don't earn them enough to generate any financial capital and they need to try and re-earn more money to make it with the economy or it can lead to unemployment. Won't have a job, completely destroyed
How have computers transformed life in the global society? Economy shifting, fewer people to do more and more, jobs taken by computers and other technology.
How does Francis Fukuyama characterize social life in the global society? Great disruption of social relationships moving. Picking up and going, me first attitude. More complex, more opportunities, small social circle and fragile, self centered. Shifting in the economy.
How do Francis Fukuyama ideas differ from those of Lester Thurow? Interested in discovering how to build wealth in a new economy. How one creates wealth by using knowledge, rather than land, gold, or industry. Developing of Society.
How does George Herbert Mead explain socialization? Symbolic interaction is the first step for personality formation. Starting from nonverbal and working its way to every day language. Individuals are able to think on their own, make their own decisions and be able to become self-critical.
What is symbolic interactionism? It's center around the interrelationship of mind, self and society and include the belief that society and the individual give rise to each other through symbolic interaction.
What is Charles Horton Cooley's "looking glass" theory of the self? That individual's sense the opinions of others from their reactions to him or her
How does a negative self-image tend to influence behavior? The individual feels dissatisfied or ashamed of themselves.
How do defense mechanism influence social interaction? It is an unconscious actions that individuals use to ward off anxiety. When the mechanisms are not shown from the individual, their real motives and goals and thus protection them from loss of self esteem.
How do families shape the individual's socialization? By who the individual hangs around with and how they are treated at home by their family
What effects can peer groups have on social development? It can either make the individual feel good about themselves or make the individual have low self esteem. This shapes the way the individual acts around others, at home, and how it affects their everyday life.
What roles can the mass media play in socialization? It is a big part of individuals life. How an individual acts and how there live their life depending on it. What they are seeing on tv, the individual can act out in that way or by what they are reading in the papers or hearing on the radio.
What are some significant causes of socially deviant behavior? How does Robert Merton explain deviance? Merton sees deviant behavior as the consequence of lack of balance in the social system, as a gap between what they society sets up as goals for its members and the means that it puts at their disposal for reaching them.
What is Emile Durkheim's concept of anomie? It is a condition of normlessness that pervades individuals when the established rules of behavior are no longer valid, are conflicting, or are weak.
What social factors have played significant roles in the development of class identity? By what an individual has, what kind of income they make, what their job is/entitles, education
According to Karl Marx, what causes social classes to develop? It is determined by the relationship of a group in society to the means of production. Capitalism created wealth, then have workers/labors.
How does Max Weber answer the question about social classes to develop? Class objectively as consisting of groups of people who had similar lifestyles dictated by their economic position in society (by goods they possessed and opportunities to increase income) Life chances that one can have
How have economic factors shaped perceptions of racial identities? The ability of a group to feel superior to others provides a rationale for a social order based on domination of a group over another.
How have the theories of multiculturalism and pluralism influenced modern society? Multiculturalism tried to focus attention on the cultural diversity existing in American society. Pluralism commitment of every person is to the good of the US but in the matters such as food, family, religion, individuals retain their ethnic ties.
What is stereotyping? It is uniform characteristics that are assigned to an entire category of people, without allowance for individual differences.
Why does stereotyping take place? Individuals hear about groups of people's characteristics and then when seeing that same group of people, they assume what they heard because that is what we have learned and what has been ingrained into us.
In what ways have ideas about Native American identity changed over time? Instead of Native Americans living on the reservations, they have moved to urban areas to find jobs to be able to support themselves and their families
What is the difference between sex and gender? Sex refers to a person's biological identity Gender refers to the socially learned behaviors and cultural expectations that attach to males and females.
How are gender roles acquired? They are acquired by how each gender acts in society.
What is a free market economy? A price system that is set by supply and demand
How can a market economy pose challenges to our ideas of civic responsibility? Society must choose between producing weapons for defense and growing food to feed people. Market Clearing Price - price clear market price able to buy and sell Surplus - seller waiting for buyers Shortage - customer waiting for product
What is a monopoly? A firm that produces the entire market supply of a specific product.
What is an oligopoly? A condition of high industrial concentration in which a small number of corporations dominate an entire industry, effectively preventing price competition.
What is a primary sector? The extraction of processing of raw materials
What is a secondary sector? manufacturing and constructing, or turning raw materials into finished products
What is a tertiary sector? involves services
How have social changes (such as industrialization and the emergence of labor unions) shaped labor markets? People moved from countries to cities, urbanization, and building unions
What do economists mean by "full employment"? The ability of the economy to utilize all individuals who are ready and willing to work. Unemployment rate of 4 to 5%.
What is the difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics? Microeconomics is the study of individual behavior in the economy as well as of specific markets. Macroeconomics deals with the national economy as a whole.
What is a price system? Decides which good and services are going to be produced.
How do economists differentiate between a product market and factor market? A product market is when a firm sells their product Factor is when household sells their services
What are the different types of labor markets? National, Local, Internal, Primary, Secondary
Why do market economies require forms of regulation? federal reserve - regulation of money supply: how much money is out there inflation - to much money Unstable economy - set up system to make sure Fiscal and Monetary
How is equilibrium achieved in different types of labor markets? where the supply and demand is balanced
How do free markets react to labor shortages? Not good. Competition among firms for workers is expected to result in increases in the wage until an equilibrium occurs. Not enough workers for job - buyers are bidding up the price on wages. High wages attracts others
What is inflation? If the demand can't be matched by an increase in supply, prices for the insufficient products for service will rise
What are the functions of fiscal policy? Consists of decisions by the government about how much, who to tax and whether and how to spend tax revenues. Tax and spend: Congress and President
What are the functions of Monetary policy? The money and credit controls to affect economic outcomes. different and agency: Federal Reserve
What is the purpose of the Federal Reserve Bank? It regulates the money supply to make sure it runs smoothly to control the spending. Started with J.P. Morgan and Rockefeller Maintain stable price level Maintain full employment with at 4 to 5% unemployment Duel Mandate
In international trade, what kinds of protectionist policies do nations adopt? Why do they do so? Protect from foreign competition Limit trade Motivation Tariffs - tax on imports: Domestic Industries Quota Trade Barrier - Stop trades Chemical Industry - Coffee Ex. Honda Car- more expensive for everybody
What are the characteristics and possible uses of Mercator map projections? excellent for navigation because it is easy to determine where the angle relationships are important or navigational and meteorological charts, created by using a cylinder tangent at the equator. The lines of latitude and longitude form a perfect grid.
What are the characteristics and possible uses of cartograms? Area cartogram - region's area is drawn relative to some value other than its land surface area. Linear cartograms - deals with distance Time - how long it gets to some place.
What are the characteristics and possible uses of conformal map projections? the shape of the areas are maintained accurately. Maintains angular shapes and angular relationships. Distort size but preserve shape Population Density all square miles are same size.
What are the characteristics and possible uses of equal-area maps? They communicate more accurately the sizes of countries and continents. When comparing one country with another, size is usually more important than shape.
What are the differences in the type of information provided by large-scale vs small-scale maps? World Map: Small Scale of a very large area, small amount of detail Large Scale large amount of detail.
What information does a topographical map provide? a picture of the terrain and man-made features through the use of contour lines, colors and symbols
What symbols does a topographical map use to display features such as mountains, rivers, marshland, depressions, etc.? V Shape for narrow valleys or stream beds U shape for a ridge
What are the characteristics of climates? Temperature and precipitation. Climate is measured over a minimum of 30 years to collect enough data. Climate is a time frame and weather is the current status.
How does the Koppen climate scale differentiate between climate regions? Deals with the climate and vegetation to interpret the weather patterns to find out the boundaries of moisture and the types of plants. Climate Regions - the climate falls on the lines of latitude. Climate Regions - lines of latitude have same am
What are the temperature and precipitation characteristics of climate regions (tundra, humid tropical, desert, Mediterranean, etc)? Humid Tropical - warm and humid, high temp and heave precipitation Desert-warm and dry climate Humid subtropical -reactively warm but occasional freezing temps Mediterranean -Precipitation is seasonal Humid Continental climate-summer warm, winter cool
How does climate influence human settlement? People want to live where the areas of water for irrigation instead of the cold dry where you can't grow crops or the extremely hot heat where crops can wilt.
What climate regions are most conducive to hunter-gatherer societies? Hunter-gatherer societies lived in the marine west coast climates where the weather isn't to hot but not freezing cold and they are able to get water especially for animals and plants
Why is sedentary agriculture more attractive in temperate climates? The amount of rainfall to allow year round growth of plants.
How does climate change affect the suitability of climate regions for human habitation? By the pollution and the hunting.
What are the characteristics of an ecosystem? How does the definition of an ecosystem combine weather and climate with plant and animal life? All living and non-living things that interact with each other. 2 parts of an ecosystem is biotic (alive) and a a-biotic (not alive (sun, water, nutrients.))
What are the characteristics of the rainforest ecosystem? wide diversity of life, a lot of plant life
What are the characteristics of the desert ecosystem? moisture is scarce, sparse vegetation, desert plants such as cacti contain water.
What are the characteristics of the savannah ecosystem? dry season, trees can lose their leaves, fire is common, reduced rainfall
What are the characteristics of the grassland ecosystem? hot summers, cold winters, moderate rainfall, grass is usually taller
What are the characteristics of the tundra ecosystem? low plant and shrub life. Summer tundra comes a love with insects, migratory birds and grazers
What is the relationship among producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem? Producers product the food Consumers eat the produced food Decomposers break down the food into the nutrients for the producers to produce the food.
What are the characteristics of renewable natural resources? Anything that humans use that is created through a human life time
What are some examples of renewable resources? Solar energy, air, wind, water, trees, livestock, grain, medicine made from plants.
Are there circumstances in which renewable resources can be stressed beyond the point of replacement? Yes, things can be depleted like the livestock that can be killed for the meat or the skin.
What are the characteristics of nonrenewable resources? Things that can't be replenished within a human life time.
What are some examples of nonrenewable resources? Coal, oil, gas, ores or uranium, aluminum, lead, copper, iron
How do activities such as recycling and reusing old products help to extend the life of nonrenewable resources? Makes the nonrenewable resources last longer if used in different way to keep the earth clean.
Are there resources that have no current substitute? Yes
How can natural resources affect regional economic or social development?How do regions with desirable natural resources specialize in their extraction and production? Regions don't produce a lot of it so they don't run out. They extract & harvest then process the resource. Sell it to produce the product, they can run out then the entire economy suffers. Don't try to conserve it but to be able to sell it to make money.
Does this have consequences for nonrenewable resources? Yes it has consequences because once it is used up then it can not be replaced.
How can natural resources affect the development of nations and the international economy? Because of the value of the goods and services in the area
How has the discovery of oil in countries in the developing world transformed their economies? Oil is rare to find and they are able to make their country rich by selling the oil they have.
How do nations with few or no natural resources compete in a global economy? By buying and selling goods that they need and other countries need. Few to no resources - labor, set up business to run in other countries to make capital (money).
How has the development of a global economy transformed the consumption of natural resources? By having international trade in which they have linked the world regions at a lower cost, more goods are produced for trade, so trade multiplies faster than total production.
Why do resources such as oil and freshwater face depletion due to increased global demand? Everyone wants oil and freshwater so it is depleting.
How does social geography differ from physical geography? Social geography deals with the social relations and how they are related and physical geography studies the characteristics of the physical environment.
What are some examples of social diffusion? The way people diverse new ways of living, work and playing. Someone starts doing something, way of music, and other people see it and adapt to it. Interacting with natural environment.
Are these particular characteristics shared by pastoral nomadic cultures? Yes and it is what their livestock represents.
Why is access to water important for the development of sedentary agriculture? Water will help the farmers crops grow and they will be able to sell it for the consumers to buy.
How did access to fresh water and natural resources (such as bronze) shape the location and development of ancient societies? The fresh water and natural resources were needed so people were able to survive. If there was plenty of it, the area grew and developed.
What are some of the demographic challenges of the developing world? Population = demographic Younger generation is a huge young population Challenges - education, jobs, support Structure of population.
How does access to fresh water, sea ports, and natural resources constrain the development of emerging nations in Africa, Asia, and South America? The sea ports are a way to transport goods, services, and the natural resources was what they transported to sell.
How do international disputes over resource rights influence the establishment of national boundaries? Disputes - have an agreement made to be able to use their ports to ship out their own resources.
How does the consumption of fossil fuels affect the global environment? by having air pollution and oil prices rising
What are some examples of air pollution, water pollution and land pollution? Air pollution - motor vehicles, air planes water pollution - garbage in the water, chemicals in the water Land pollution - garbage on the side of the road
Why are conditions, such as acid precipitate, the consequences of prolonged industrial pollution? If it keeps going on, pollution will keep on building up and making living conditions worse.
What determines the growth of a national population? growth - birth rates, immigration, migration, death rates
How do factors such as population density and agricultural production affect birth and death rates? Population density - if it is high the birth rate is lower agricultural production - if something was bad in the production can have high death rates.
How do geographers describe high and low population growth rates? Geographers investigate and do research on the birth rate and death rate to figure out if the population grown this high or low. Then the population will be stabilized and stay at a consistent population.
How are population controls implemented (technology, cultural values, etc.)? Through family-planning programs, contraceptive technology, role of the mass media, obstacles to population control, birth-control programs
Created by: mmarsh2