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Accountability (1) The state or condition of being responsible for those actions and behaviors and performances that are expected of a person because of the office or job held by that person
Achievement Test A test designed to measure the amount of knowledge and/or skill a person has acquired, usually as a result of classroom instruction; may be either informal or standardized
Age-Equivalent the chronological age for which a specified raw score is the average age.
Age Norms norms that give age equivalents for raw-score values.
Aptitude Combination of characteristics, both native and acquired, that indicates the capacity of a person to develop proficiency in some skill or subject matter after relevant training (implies intellectual/skill aspects not emotional/personality characteristics)
Assessment the act or process of determining the present level (usually of achievement) of a group or individual, typically on the basis of multiple sources of information.
Average general term for any central tendency measure, e.g., the mean, median, or mode.
Barnum Effect The act or practice of stating a test interpretation in such general and favorable terms that it is readily accepted as appropriate by almost everyone. Named after P.T. Barnum (AKA "Aunt Fanny Effect")
Basal Age the highest level age at which a given examinee correctly answers all items.
Battery 1)a set of tests standardized on the same group, so that the results will be comparable; such a battery is called integrated. 2)A set of test administered at about the same time to an individual or group; e.g., an employment battery or counseling battery.
Bell-Shaped Curve (AKA Normal distribution curve)Useful mathematical model representing the distribution expected when an infinite number of observations (e.g., scores) deviate from the mean only by chance; although a normal distribution can never be attained in realty.
Bias unfairness, real or imagined, in an item or set of test items.
Chronological Age Any persons' age; i.e., the length of time a person has lived.
Cognitive factors Those characteristics of the individual that imply intellectual ability, as contrasted with affective or personality characteristics
Composite Score A total score consisting of the sum of scores on two or more variables; (less commonly) an average of such scores.
Convergent thinking Refers to a test that is scored for the "right" or "best" answer; used in opposition to divergent thinking.
Correlation the tendency for two (occasionally more) variables to change values concomitantly. Note: Evidence of correlation is NOT evidence of causation.
Creativity AKA Divergent Thinking
Criterion A standard against which a test may be validated; e.g. grade-point average is an obvious criterion for a scholastic aptitude test.
Criterion-referenced Test Testing that is norm-referenced, but where test performance is described directly in terms of performance at any given level on the continuum of an external variable.
Culture Biased Describes a test on which the items, whether intentionally or not, are easier for one cultural subgroup than for another or others.
Culture Fair describes a test that is relatively unbiased; no test can be completely culture free.
Cutting Score The minimum passing score, usually determined through research, for some practical situation (e.g., college entrance or job selection)
Derived score any type of score other than a raw score.
deviation the amount by which a score differs from a specified reference point (usually, but not always, the mean or other average)
diagnostic test 1. a test (usually of achievement) designed to identify specific educational difficulties. 2. a test given as a part of counseling or psychotherapy as an aid in determining the nature of one's mental disorder.
distracter any incorrect alternative in a multiple-choice exam.
distribution AKA frequency distribution/normal distribution
divergent thinking Refers to a test in which novel or creative responses are desired; contrasts with the more common convergent thinking tests.
equivalent form any two or more forms of a test, usually standardized on the same population an published at the same time, that are designed to be similar in item content and difficulty so that scores on the forms will be comparable
error a generic term for those elements in a test and testing situation that operate to keep a test from being perfectly reliable.
factor strictly and technically, an element or variable presumed to exist because of its ability to help explain some of the interrelationships noted among a set of tests.
frequency the number of individuals obtaining any specified score or falling in any specified class interval.
frequency distribution any orderly arrangement of scores, usually from highest to lowest, showing the frequency with which each score (or each class interval) occurs.
grade norm the average test score for pupils with a grade placement.
halo effect an unwarranted generalization of test interpretation; e.g., inferring that an examinee is highly intelligent because of a high score on one aptitude test or inferring low ability because of a single observation.
individual test a test that usually, if not always, can be administered to only one examinee at a time.
intelligence an abstraction variously defined by different authorities; in general, the capacity or set of capacities that enables an individual to learn, to cope with the environment, to solve problems, etc.
inventory 1. most commonly, a pencil-and-paper test of personality, interest, attitude, or the like. 2. less commonly, an achievement test designed to "take an inventory" of student or class knowledge or skill on a specific task.
item 1. any individual problem or question on a test 2. usually the basic unit to be scored on an objective test.
mean most widely used measure of central tendency; equals the sum of scores divided by the number of examinees.
median next to the mean, the most common measure of central tendency; the point on the scale of score values that separates the group into two equal subgroups.
mental age A derived score. Rarely used today
mode A measure of central tendency; that score value which has the greatest frequency; i.e., that score obtained by more examinees that any other.
NCE (norm curve equivalent): A normalized standard score with a mean of 50.00 and a standard deviation of 21.06; intended for research only.
norm average, normal, or standard for a group of specified status (e.g., of a given age or grade placement)
normal distribution (curve) mathematical model representing the distribution expected when an infinite number of observations deviate from the mean only by chance; athough a normal distribution can never be attained in reality, many actual distributions do approach the model
norms a set of values descriptive of the performance on a test of some specified group
norms-referenced test descriptive of an objective test that has been standardized on a group of people, so that the performance of examinees can be described in reference to this comparison (i.e., norm) group; such tests are psychometric, as opposed to edumetric.
objective test a test for which the scoring procedure is specified completely in advance, thereby permitting complete agreement among different scorers.
percentile Any of the 99 points along the scale of score values that divide a distribution into 100 groups of equal frequency; e.g, p73 is that point at or below which fall 73 percent of the cases in a distribution
percentile rank A derived score stated in terms of the percentage of examinees in a specified group who fall at or below a given score point.
personality test a typical-performance test, questionnaire, or other device designed to measure some affective characteristic of the individual
performance test an ambiguous term used variously to mean (a) a test involving special apparatus, as apposed to a pencil-and-paper test, (b) a test minimizing verbal skills, or (c) a work-sample test.
power test any maximum-performance test for which speed is not an important determinant of score;thus, a test with a very generous (or no) time limit.
profile a graphic representation of the performance of an individual (or, less commonly a group) on a series of tests, especially the tests in an integrated battery.
quartile any of the three points that divide a frequency distribution into four groups of equal frequency. The first quartile (Q1) equals the twenty-fifth percentile (P25); Q2=P50 or the median; and Q3=P75.
range the difference between the highest and the lowest scores made on a test.
raw score the basic score initially obtained from scoring a test according to directions given by the test maker, usually equal to number of correct responses, but may be the number of wrong answers or errors, time required for a task, etc.
reliability reproduceability of a set of scores under differing conditions; i.e., consistency or stability of a measuring instrument; necessary, but not sufficient, for validity.
sample a general term referring to a group, however selected, that is assumed to represent the entire population from which it was drawn.
scaled score (1) loosely, any derived score (2) more technically, any of several systems of scores (usually similar to standard scores) used in (a) articulating different forms, editions, and/or levels of a test; or (b) developmental research.
speed test (1)a test on which an examinee's speed is an important determinant of his or her score.(2) a test on which the score equals the time taken to complete it.
standard deviation a measure of variability preferred over all others because of its mathematical soundness and its general usefulness as a basis for (a) standard scores, (b) standard errors, and (c) various statistical tests of significance.
standard error of measurement an estimate of the standard deviation that would be found in the distribution of scores for a specified person if that person were to be tested repeatedly on the same or similar test (assuming no learning); thus a measure of test reliability.
standard score any of several derived scores based on the number of standard deviations between a given raw score and the mean of the distribution.
subjective test a test on which the personal opinion or impression of the scorer is one determinant of the obtained score; i.e., the scoring key cannot be (or is not) fully prescribed in advance of scoring.
survey test a test designed to measure achievement in one or more specified areas, usually with the intention of assessing group understanding- rather than individual measurement- of the concepts, principles, and facts.
test an examination; a device or process for examining some characteristic of an individual or group.
test security the act or process of ensuring that only authorized people have access to tests, test supplies, and test results.
true score a theoretical concept never obtainable in practice, an error-free score ; usually defined as the average of the scores that would be obtained if a specified examinee were to take the same test an infinite number of times.
usability the attribute of a test that is concerned with such practical matters as cost of the test, time to administer and score, etc.
validity the extent to which a test does the job desired of it; the evidence may be either empirical or logical. (Unless otherwise noted, criterion-related validity is implied)
variability the amount of scatter or dispersion in a set of scores.
Created by: Gifted-Assess