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Science Test 630s

Digestive and Urinary System

Term Definition
Liver A large reddish brown organ that helps with digestion
Constipation When body doesn't get enough water, fiber or exercise
Anus Opening where feces pass
Digestive Tract A series of tubelike organ that are joined together end to end that help digest food. It includes: the mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, rectum, and anus.
Peristalsis A muscle that forces food into the stomach
Gastric Ulcer Open sore in stomach
Saliva A liquid that mixes with food as you chew it
Enamel The hardest material in your body, outermost layer of teeth
Premolars Teeth that are perfect for mashing food
Chemical Digestion When food is digested by being broken down by chemicals
Incisors Teeth in front of mouth, used for shredding food
Enzymes Special substances that break nutrients into smaller particals
Colon Cancer Disease that can cause death, when colon cells divide uncontrollably and a tumor forms
Canines Teeth in the front of mouth, used for shredding food
Molars Teeth in back of the mouth, used for grinding food
Digestive System A group of organs working together to digest food, so it can be used by the body
Esophagus Tube that leads to stomach, food travels down it while being pushed by peristalsis
Mechanical Digestion The breaking, crushing, and mashing of food
Sphincters Bands of muscle
Heartburn When stomach is blocked off at either end by bands of muscle called sphincters
Diarrhea When bowel movements are frequent and watery
Gallbladder Small baglike organ that breaks up large fat
Rectum The last section of the large intestine that stores feces until they can be expelled
Feces/Stool Liquid made by the large intestine
Urinary System A system that removes waste products from your blood
Excretion Term used when substances must pass through a membrane in order to leave the body
Kidney Pair of bean shaped organs that contently clean and filter blood, produce urine
Nephrons Microscopic filters inside a kidney, filter blood, more than 1 million in a kidney
Hormones A balance of fluids that is controlled by chemical messengers
Sweat and Thirst When you get hot, you loose more water and it cools you down, salivary glands produce less saliva, one of the reasons you feel thirsty
Antidiuretic Hormone When a hormone is released when you are thirsty, it signals the kidneys to take back water from the nephrons and return it to the blood stream, making it less urine
Diuretics Caffeine and other beverages that make you have more urine and it decreases the amount of water in your blood, makes you have to go to the bathroom more often
Bacterial Infections When bacteria gets into the bladder and ureters and causes painful infections, can spread to the kidneys if not treated early and can lead to permanent damage in the nephrons
Kidney Stones When salts and waste collect inside kidneys, they interfere with urine flow and cause pain
Kidney Disease Damage in nephrons, prevent normal kidney function
Ureter Lets urine out
Ureter Carries urine to bladder
Urine Pee
Kidney Transplant When kidneys do not work properly and you have to get them removed and install new ones
Bladder Stores urine
Created by: NatRat