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Chapter 11-14

Living Organisms and Ecosystems-SSMS

pollination the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma
reproduction the natural process among organisms by which new individuals are generated and the species perpetuated
fertilization In plants, pollen grains, containing the male sex cells, enter the female sex cells in the pistil; from this union, fruit eventually grows. When fertilization occurs within a single flower, we call it self-fertilization
ovules the plant part that contains the embryo sac and hence the female germ cell, which after fertilization develops into a seed
stamens the pollen-bearing organ of a flower, consisting of the filament and the anther
petal one of the often colored segments of the corolla of a flower
sepals one of the individual leaves or parts of the calyx of a flower
pistils the ovule-bearing or seed-bearing female organ of a flower, consisting when complete of ovary, style, and stigma
anther the pollen-bearing part of a stamen
chloroplast a plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments, occurring in plants and algae that carry out photosynthesis
chlorophyll the green pigment of plants and photosynthetic algae and bacteria that traps the energy of sunlight for photosynthesis
pigment a colored substance used to color other materials
photosynthesis the process in which organisms use water along with sunlight and carbon dioxide to make their own food
transpiration the passage of water through a plant from the roots through the vascular system to the atmosphere
carbon dioxide a colorless, odorless gas that is exhaled by animals and absorbed by plants
respiration the process by which organisms exchange gases, especially oxygen and carbon dioxide, with the environment
stimuli something that incites to action or exertion or quickens action, feeling, thought, etc.
tropisms an orientation of an organism to an external stimulus, as light, especially by growth rather than by movement
food chain a series of events in which one organism eats another and obtains energy
food web the pattern of overlapping food chains in an ecosystem
energy pyramid a diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web
energy the ability to do work or cause change
matter anything that has mass and takes up space
ecosystems the community of organisms that live in particular area, along with their nonliving surroundings
producer an organism that can make its own food
biotic factors a living part of an organism's habitat
abiotic factor a nonliving part of an organism
consumer an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
herbivore consumer that eats only plants
carnivore a consumer that eats only animals
omnivore a consumer that eats both plants and animals
scavenger a carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organisms
decomposer an organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
competition the struggle between organisms to survive as they attempt to use the same limited resource
predation an interaction in which one organism kills another for food
predator the organism that does the killing in a predation interaction
prey an organism that is killed and eaten by another organism
symbiosis a close relationship between species that benefits at least one of the species
mutualism a relationship between two species in which both species benefit
commensalisms a relationship between two species in which one species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
parasitism a relationship in which one organism lives on or in a host and harms it
parasite the organism that benefits by living on or in a host in a parasitism interaction
host the organism that a parasite lives in or on in a parasitism interaction
Created by: autumn.crandall