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mid term 1 geography

geography 100 mid term for chapters 1,4,5

biodiversity variety in the types and numbers of species in a particular region of the world
biogeography study of the spatial distribution of vegetation animals and other organisms
biome largest geographic biotic unit, a major community of plants and animals or similar eco systems
capitalism form of economic and social organization characterized by the profit motive and the control of private means of production, distribution, and exchange of goods by private ownership.
climate typical conditions of the weather expected at a place often measured by long-term averages of temperature and precipitation.
colonialism establishment and maintenance of political and legal domination by a state over a seperate and alien society
colonization establishment of the settlement in a place or region
commodity anything useful that can be bought or sold
commodity chain networks of labor and production processes that originate in the extraction or production of raw materials. the end result is the delivery and consumption of a finished commodity.
communism form of economic and social organization characterized by the common ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange.
comparative advantage principal where by places and regions specialize in activities for which they have the greatest advantage in productivity relative to other regions-or for which they have the least disadvantage.
continental drift slow movement of the continents over long periods of time across earths surface.
core region regions that dominate trade control the most advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity within diversified economies.
culture shared set of meanings that are lived through the material and symbolic practices of everyday life.
demographic transition replacement of high birth and death rates by love birth and death rates.
development theory analysis of social change that assesses the economic progress of individual countries in an evolutionary way.
diaspora spatial dispersion of a previously homogeneous group.
division of labor separation of productivity processes in to individual operations each preformed by different workers or groups of workers.
earth system science intregated approach to the study of earth that stresses investigation of the interactions among earth's components in order to explain earth and atomosphere dynamics, earth evolution and ecosystems and global change.
ecosystem complex pf living organisms their physical enviorment, and all their relationships in a particuar place.
formal region region with a high degree of homogeneity in terms of particular distinguishing features.
functional region area characterized by a coherent functional organization of human occupancy.
gender social differences between men and women rather than the anatomical differences related to sex
gender division of labor separation of productive processes based on gander.
geomorphology study of land forms
global warming increase in world temperatues and change in climate associated with increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other gases resulting from human activities such as deforestation and fossil-fuel burning.
globalization increasing interconnectedness of the world through common processes of economic, enviormental, political and cultural change.
greenhouse effect trapping of heat with in the atmosphere by water vapor and gases, such as carbon dioxide, resulting in the warming of the atmosphere and surface.
gross domestic production estimate of the total value of all materials, foodstuffs, goods, and services that are produce in a country in a particular year.
gross national product similar to gdp, but also includes the value of income from abroad.
hegemony domination over the world economy, exercised through a combination of economic, militay financial and cultural means by one national state in a particular historical epoch
imperialism extention of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories
international division of labor specialization of different people regions and countries in certain kinds of economic activities.
international monetary fund organization that provides that provides loans to governments through out the world
intertropical convergence zone regions where air flows together and rise vertically as a result of intense solar heating at the equator often with heavy rainfall and shifting north and south with the seasons.
irredentism assertion by the government of a country that a minority living outside its borders belongs to it historically and culturally.
leadership cycles periods of international power established by the individual states through economic, political, and military competitions.
mercantilism economic policy in which government controls economic trade.
modernization theory economic development occurs when investment rates enable higher levels of industrialization, thus raising labor productivity and increasing GDP.
nation a group of people often sharing common elements of culture, such as religion, language, a history or a political identity
nationalism feeling of belonging to a nation as wellas the belief that a nation has a natural right to determine its own affairs
nation-state ideal form consisting of a homogeneous group of people governed by their own state.
neocolonialism economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain or extend their influence over other areas or people
neoliberalism economic doctrine based on a belief in am minimalist role for the state, assuming the desirability of free markets as the ideal condition not only for economic organization but also for social and political life.
new international division of labor Decentralization of manufacturing production from core regions to some peripheral and semi-peripheral countries.
peripheral region regions that are characterized by dependent and disadvantageous trading relationships, by inadequate or obsolescent technologies, and by undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity.
place specific geographic settings with distinctive physical, social and cultural attributes.
plantation large agricultural estate that is usually tropical or semitropical, mono-cultural (one crop) and commercial export oriented most of which were estabilished in one period.
plate tectonics theory that earths crust is divided into large solid plates that move relative to each other and cause mountain building, volcanic, and earthquake activity when they are separate or meet.
primary activity economic activity that is concerned directly with natural resources of any kind
quaternary activity economic activity that deals with the handling and processing of knowledge and information.
region large territory that encompasses many places, all or most of which share similar attributes of places else where.
regional geography study of the ways in which unique combinations of enviromental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes
regionalization geographers classification of individual places or areal units
secondary activity economic activity involving the processing transformation, fabrication or assembly of raw materials or the reassembly, refinishing or packing o manufactured goods.
sectionalism extreme devotion to local intrests and customs
semiperipheral region regions that are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated by the core regions.
sense of place feelings evoked among pwoplw as a result of the experiences and memories that they associate with a place and to the symbolism that they attach to it.
spatial justice fairness of distribution of societies burdens and benifits taking into account spatial varations in peoples needs and in their contribution o the production of wealth and social well being
state interdependent political unit with territorial boundries that are internationally recognized by other states.
structural adjustment policies economic policies, mostly associated with the international monetary fund, that required governments to cut budgets and liberalize trade intern for debt relief.
supranational organization collection of individual states with a common economic and/or political goal that diminishes to some extent, individual state sovereignty in favor of the collective intrests of the memberships.
sustainable development vision of developement that seeks a balance among economic growth, enviormental impacts and social equity.
technology system cluster of interrelated energy, transportation, and production technologies that dominates economic activity for several decades
tertiary activity economic activity the sale and exchange of goods and services.
transnational corporation corporation that has investments and activities that span international boundaries, with subsidiary companies, factories, offices, or facilities in several countries.
weather instantaneous or immediate state of atmosphere
world bank developed bank and largest source of development assistance in the world.
world region large-scale geographic division based on continental and physiographic settings that contain major clusters of human kind with broadly similar cultural attributes.
world system interdependent system of countries linked by political competition.
afforestation converting previously unforested land to forest by planting trees or seeds
aridity climate with insufficient moisture to support trees or woody plants
balfour declaration 1917 british mandate that required the establishment of a jewish national homeland
chandor loose, usually black robe won by muslim women that covers the body, including face from head to toe.
guest worker foreign worker who is permitted to work in another country on a temporary basis
hajj pilgrimage to mecca, required of all muslims
import substitution process by which domestic producers provide goods or services that were formerly bought from foreign producers.
informal economy economic activities that take place beyond official record and not subject to formalized system of regulation or remuneration.
internally displaced person individuals who are uprooted in with in thier own country due to civil conflict or human right violation, sometimes by their own government.
intifada the violent uprising of palestinians against the rule of israel in the occupied territories.
islam religion that is based on submission to gods will according to the qur'an
islamist anti-colonial, anti-imperialist, and overall anti core political movement.
jihad sacred struggle or striving to carry out gods will according to the tenets of islam.
mandate delegation of political power over a region, provice or state
minisystem society with a single cultural base and a reciprocal social economy
muslim member of the islamic religion
nationalist movement organized groups of people sharing common elements of culture, such as language, religion or history who wish to determine their own political affairs.
nationalization process of converting key industries from private to governmental organization of control.
oasis spot in the desert made fertile by the availbility of surface water.
petrodollar revenues generated by the sale of oil
transhumance movements of herds according to seasonal rhythms: warmer, lowland areas in the winter and cooler highland areas in the summer.
tribe form of social identity created by groups who share a common set of ideas about collective loyalty and political action.
world religion large scale geographic division based on continental and physiographic settings that contain major clusters of human kind with broadly similar populations.
zionism movement whose cheif objective has been the establishment for the jewish people of a legally recognized home in palestine.
apartheid south africa's policy of racial separaton that prior ro 1994 structured space and society to keep separate black white and colored populations.
berlin conference meeting convened by german chancellor bismark in 1884085 to divide africa among european colonial powers.
bush fallow modification of shifting cultivation where crops are rotates around a village and fallow periods are shortened.
circular migration traditional and long standing population movments that respond to seasonal avalibility of pasture droughts and wadge employments.
desertification process by which arid and semiarid lands become degraded and less productive, leading to more desert like conditions.
domestication adaptation of wild plants and animals through selective breeding by human for preferred characteristics into cultivated or tamed forms
feminization of poverty likely hood that women will be poor, malnourished and otherwise disadvantaged because of inequalities with in the house hold, the community the country.
g8 group of 8 countries ( germany, canada, france, itlay, japan, russia, and the united kingdom, and the us) whose heads of states meet each year to discuss issues of mutual and global concern.
gender and development gad. approach to development that links womens productivity and reproductive roles and an approach to understanding the gender related differences and barriers to better lives of both men and women.
harmattan hot dry wind that blows out of the inland of africa
homelands areas set aside in the s. africa for black residents but no vote and limited rights in the general politics of s. africa.
microfinance programs programs that provide credit and sacings to the self employed poor, including those in the informal sector, who cannot borrow money from commercial banks.
millennium development goals (mdg's) 8 goals to be met by 2015, agreed to by members of the un. that include the eradication of poverty, universal primary education, gender equality, the reduction of child mortality, the imporvement of maternal health, the combating of disease, enviormental
savanna grassland vegetation found in tropical climates with pronounced dry season and periodic fires.
shifting cultivation agricultural system that preserves soil fertility by moving crops from one plot to another.
slash and burn agricultural system often used in tropical forests that involves cutting trees and brush burning them so that crops can benefit from cleared ground and nurtients in the ash.
social capital networks and relationships that encourage trust, recipocity and cooperation.
Created by: hafayack89