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Science Ch. 3

Heredity The passing of physical characteristics from parents to offspring.
Trait Each different form of a characteristic.
Genetics The scientific study of heredity.
Fertilization The process in which egg and sperm join.
Purebred The offspring of many generations that have the same trait.
Hybrid An organism that has two different alleles for a trait.
Alleles The different forms of a gene.
Dominant Allele A trait that always shows up when the allele is present.
Recessive Allele An allele that is always hidden whenever the dominant allele is present.
Probability The number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur.
Punnett Square A chart that shows all possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross.
Phenotype An organism's physical traits.
Genotype An organism’s genetic material, or allele combinations.
Heterozygous An organism that has two different alleles for a trait.
Homozygous An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait.
Codominance When the alleles are neither recessive or dominant. As a result, both alleles are expressed in the offspring.
Meiosis (and how it’s different from mitosis) The process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells. Mitosis repairs damage and replaces worn out cell parts. It also helps with growth because it controls the production of body cells. Mitosis makes identical cells. Meiosi
Messenger RNA It copies the coded message from the DNA in the nucleus, and carries the message to the ribosome in the cytoplasm.
Transfer RNA It carries amino acids to the ribosome and adds them to the growing protein.
Protein Synthesis During this process, the cell uses information from a gene on a chromosome to produce a specific protein.
Mutations When an allele is added, deleted, or substituted, resulting in an abnormality in a singular gene or a whole chromosome.
Created by: katekenney