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Erhart ANTH 2414

Exam 2

"Paleolithic" Diet Diet based on foods that we are adapted to from a foraging ancestory. 2 hands complex carbs, 1 hand protein, 1/2 hand refined carbs, 1 finger fats
Acclimation short term physiological adaptations (ex: sweating)
Acclimatization long term physiological adaptations (ex: altitude changes, inuit)
Adaptations to Climate stress [Hot-radiation(from objects), convection(air molecules), cunduction(heat to objects, vasodialation), evaporation(only removes heat, sweat), narrow linear bodies, loose or little clothing], [Cold-shivering, Lewis Hunting Phenomenon, wide & bulky stature, i
Adaptations to High-Altitude Stress [Hypoxia- acclimation(increased respiration), acclimatiztion(increades RBC production for oxygen, higher hemoglobin concentration), developmental acclimatization(heavier right ventricle)], [growth-greater chest dimentions, shorter stature bc of delayed ma
Adaptations to Nutritional Stress 8 of 20 amino acids we can only gain from diet.
Adolescence Stage puberty->adult stature/secondary sex characteristics, enlargement of reproductive system, menstration, boys voices deepen
Adulthood Stage last permanent tooth->death, the wisdom teeth, no growth & development
Allen Rules populations living in colder enivroments have shorter appendanges & extremeties.
Alu polymorphism no known effect, frequencies vary in geographic locations
Baby boomer generation people borm after WWII in 1960's, much more old age in population, they will overwhelm medical & social system once retired.
Benifits of Agriculture more edible parts, easier to harvest, process & digest, better tasting, more energy, predictable food supply
Bergmann & Allen Rules heat production corrolates with total volume/heat loss corrolates with total surface area. surface area/volume= heat loss ratio, the larger the ratio the better for cold climates.
Bergmann Rules populations with less bulk found near the equator & vice versa/ more weight & less surface area in colder enviroments
Biological concept of race each race would be a biologically similar Subspecies; would have to be different from other race by .25 Fst to be a subspecies, Linneaus
Body size & shape cormic index (sitting height/standing heightX100) determines body porportion. (brachycormic-hot-long legs)/(macrocormic-cold-short & bulky)
Causes of Epidemiologic transition sometimes a positive change: 1.cultural changes(sewer systems)
CCR5 gene give some protection against AIDS, delays onset of symptoms
Changing age structure medicine & tachnology even out age pyramid
Childhood Stage weaning->adult brain size/continued care. normally the "toddler", nutrition very critical during this time bc of brain growth 75% by 2&1/2 years. 10 yr 95% of brain weight=normal end of childhood.
Clines a distribution wherein biological traits vary in a specific pattern across geography.
Complex Traits Measuring Human Variation effected by multiple genes & enviroment:1.Anthropometrics (measuring the human body)2.Skin color(spectrophotometer-upper arm)3.Odontometrics,4.Dermatoglyphics(ex: fingerprints)
Continuos Variation the theories of Blumenback, Coon, Garn, and Linnaeus did not work to divide the human race into subspecies or races due to the nature of continuous variation.
Cormic Index cormic index (sitting height/standing heightX100) determines body porportion.
Costs of Agriculture decline in diet quality(processed foods), increase in insecurity, increase in disease (waste)
Cranial size & shape cephalic index(head breadth/head lengthX100) /Dolicocephalic: long, narrow heat for a hot climate/Brachycephalic: round, square head for a cold climate
Cultural Patterns & Morphology culture inflences diet, body modification, and activity patterns. Activity pattern has biggest impact on morphology.
Delta-32 mutation a CCR5 mutation, give complete HIV resistance, mostly in northern europe possibly bc of bubonic plague
Diseases of "civilization" nonifectious disese(ex:colon cancer)
Distance Curve measure of size over time (ex: height v. age)
Endemic a slow low steady rate of disease, mainly in foragging populations.
Enviromental Plasticity phenomenon of highly adaptable biological characteristics
Epidemic when a infectious disease spread rapidly causing a population crash, killing the disease also. Often in settled populations.
Epidemiologic transition in Developed Countries increased life expectancy at birth, decline of infectous disease(noninfectous much higher), increase in degenerative diseases
Epidemiologic transition in undeveloped Countries infectous disease (lack of technology), contaminated water & diarehha,
Epidemiologic transition change in disease rates in both developed & undeveloped countries.
Eugenics The study of hereditary improvement of the human race by controlled selective breeding. Often compared traits to genetics.
Evolutionary Studies of dark skin 1.adaption to uv rays(loss of hair, increase in sweat glands, to avoid skin cancers, sunburn, & folate deficiency
Evolutionary Studies of light skin To avoid: viatamin D deficency (rickets & frostbite)
Evolutionary Studies of Variation 1. Claxton African Americans(gene flow), 2.Yanomano(founder effect/genetic drift), 3.Lactase Persistence(mutation in pastoral groups)
Fst measure of genetic variation, statistical measurement of the fraction of variation found between samples
Gene Flow movement of alleles within and between populations
Gene Therapy when humans alter sequences of DNA via tech. to repair or alter the function of the given sequence of DNA.
Genetic & Hormonal control of growth hormone circulation increases growth. Endocrine Gland(hormone gland)-Somatotropin(pituitary gland), Thyroid, Gonadal Hormones(testosterone& estrogen)
Genetic Drift AKA Founder effect, evolutionary process in which a small group of individuals account for al of the genetic variation in a large population
Global Carrying Capacity anywhere from 4 to 16 billion people
Growth Curves Distance & Velocity
Growth in different human groups enviroment (Mayans & Ladinos)& genetics(efe & lese) effect growth.
Growth& Development increase in size & increase in tissue, continous growth together.
Heterochrony : the underlying mechanism for paedomorphosis and peramorphosis.
History of Racism Evolved with maritime, misunderstanding of differences, & eugenics.
HIV Acts as a selective agent.
HLA System part of the human immune system that helps signal the presence of foreign substances in the body. Proteins on white blood cells.
Homeostasis Normal limits of operation, adaptations help keep homeostasis
Infancy Stage birth->1st permenant tooth/birth->weaning. biologisits define this stage differently because of breast feeding in different cultures
Intermembral Index ratio of arm length to leg length
Interstitial& Appositional Growth Both facets of growth: I-cells increase in
Juvenille Stage adult brain size->puberty, brain dosen't grow in weight
Life History Theory How human children grow, the stages of growth conception to adulthood, also Time, effort, and energy used for one purpose diminishes the time effort, and energy available for another
Malnutrition Protein dificency(kwashirkor), protein-calorie difeciency(marasmus)
Melanin the main pigment in human skin, occurring in two forms: black and brown
Melanocytes cells that produce melanin & disrtibutes it into the epidermis
microsatellite DNA people who carry two to three repeats tells something about your heritage
mismatch DNA compare DNA sequences and find where they don't match
mitochondrial DNA – carry own unique DNA and gets passed from mother to offspring; can use to trace heritage and family lines.
Natural Selection & Human Behavior Human behavior reduces direct pressures, which narrows natural selection. (gene flow, genetic drift, mutations)
Nose size & shape nasal index (nasal breadth/nasal length X100)/(leptorrhine-long narrow nose-cold)/(platyrrhine-wide broad nose-hot)
Obesity fat overtakes muscle, convience foods, soft drinks
Old Age Stage sometimes included as a stage, cell death > cell growth.
Paedomophosis alters growth patterns by slowing growth of some parts of the body during normal sexual development
Pathogen a disease-producing agent
Peramorphosis when one part of the body becomes adult like in it's form.
Pollution & Human Biology pollution aids in reemergence of infectious disease
Population Growth slow but steady growth in human population, encouraged by sedentary life. 1.Lowered Mortality rates, 2.Increase in fertility, 3.Increased infant survival
Population Pyramid a perfect triangle in undeveloped even out in developed.
Prenatal Stage conception-> birth, enormous amount of brain growth, humans must have assisted births b/c born backwards
Problems with the concept of race How many races, continouos variation, non coorespondance of traits, never hit .25 Fst
r/K selection theory An r-selection strategy is the production of a large number of offspring (of whom only a minority may survive) as early in life as possible. The K-selection strategy is to produce a smaller number of "fitter" offspring with higher survival chances.
Reemergence of infectious disease Human-made environmental changes: pollution, deforestation, global warming(habitat loss), technology(travel), antibiotic resistance
SARS may be a newly emergent varient species of the cold virus, evolutionary change and enviroment effect
Scientific definition of race there are no biolgical races, a population or group of populations within a species that has measurable, defining biological characteristics and an Fst of at least 0.25 relative to other populations in the species
Secular trends in growth how growth changes have changed over time: 1.height & weight has increased, 2. age of menstration has lowered dramatically
Sedentary Life Lower rates of daily activity, prolonged sitting, and little physical activity, combined with extended periods of social stress and poor dietary patterns, can have pronounced physiological consequences. These range from reduced fertility to hypertension a
Seven Stages of Growth 1.Prenatal, 2.Infancy, 3.Childhood, 4.Juvenile, 5.Adolescence, 6.Adulthood, 7.Old Age
Sex differences in the skeleton & soft tissue (p.317) pelvis shape, jaw, cranium(F-vertical forehead), reproductive organs & genetalia....
Simple Traits Measuring Human Variation 1.Blood type: example blood type O is the oldest blood type. Native Americans immigrated and overtime blood type O became their common blood type. 2.Genetic information a)Mismatch DNA sequences b)Alu polymorphism c)Microsatellite DNA d)Mitochondrial DNA
Social Definition of race race is only a cultural reality
Stress Anything that interferes with normal limits of operation (homeostasis)
Subspecies =race, (Linneaus- Taxonomy), a population that meets the criteria defined within the scientific concept of race
Theories of Menopause 1.Humans are living longer then egg supply, 2. egg biology constraint 3.Grandmother Hypothosis-reproduction ceases beacuse they will become grandmothers, and can produce food supply.
Types of Adaptations cultural(ex: medicine), physiological(adjustment of body functions to enviroment), morphological(structural body cahnges in response to enviroment), biochemical(cellular adjustments to enviroment, genetic)
Types of Stress Climate, Nutritional
Unique Human Stages Childhood-development & period of time for learning, possibly bc humsn babies are born premature compared to other species, Adolescence- growth spurts, bimaturism
Urbanization & Disease Urbanization->urban centers->purchase foods->inadequate sewage systems->contaminated water(biggest cause of infecteous disease)->bad storage of surplus foods
Vasoconstriction blood vessels contrict to keep the core warm
Vasodialation blood vesssels dialate to heat up extremeties & prevent frostbite.
Velocity Curve rate of change over time (ex: height in 1 year)
What causes Climate stress temperature
What causes High-Altitude stress low oxygen, greater uv radiation, low humidity, high winds, animals & plants effected by stresses too.
What causes Nutritonal Stress Nutritional needs change during growth, modernization,
Created by: ar1356