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Microparasite multiply in host body, short life span and small body, transient infection
sub-groups of micro-parasite attack susceptible, infected but latent, infected and infectious, recovered and immune
incubation period time from entrance to the body until the clinical symptoms appear,dependent on age, host organism immune system
latent period organism enters non-active sites while immune system focus on responding to the organism activity. can be dormant for years
macroparasite seen with naked eye, do not replicate within host, transmissible
epidemiology study of occurrence,spread and control of disease.
data collection observational and descriptive, analytical and experimental.
data result record of disease affecting population, cause of transmission, risk factors, prediction of future outbreaks, control policy
infection invasion of host organism with a disease causing organism
disease pathological condition of an organism.
infectious disease transmissible disease caused by entrance, growth and multiplication of microorganism in the body such as virus, fungi or bacterium
carriers host taht show no symptoms of disease but shelter the infectious agent and can pass it to others
transmission in carriers passing the agent
resistant in carriers capacity of organism to defend and withstand the effects of disease
endemic disease constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain sub group/ location
hyperendemic equally endemic at a high level in all age group population
holoendemic endemic in entire population of given area
epidemic large no. of infection by a particular agent develops in short time and transmit rapidly to many individuals
panademic widespread epidemic infection over continents
prevalence no of all new and old cases of a disease during particular period
period and point p ; defined period of time P: single period of time
incidence measure of the risk of developing new condition in a time frame
seroconversion development of detectable specific antibodies int he serum as a result of infection or immunization
descriptive data collected during/after outbreak, analysis depends on data, info on demographic, geography, climatic, behavioural and personal situations,
analytical epidemiology studies to test a hypothesis about disease and exposure relationship
case control evaluate difference in people with and without disease, search in different time periods(retrospective).
Cohort study identifies group of people exposed to the possible harmful agents and follow them for a period of time to see the effects in comparision to the not exposed. PROSPECTIVE : expected in the future
experimental drug and vaccine trials, placebo, detailed planning and analysis, ethical issues, different reactions from different organism
mathematical modelling descriptive, analytical and experimental studies, interpretative and predictive, widely applicable
herd immunity degree to which community is susceptible to an infectious disease by reason of acquired immunity either by previous infection or prophylactic immunisation
B E I N G S factor of preventable disease Biological & Behavioural, Environmental, Immunological, Nutritional, Genetical, Social
Vaccination long term protection against infectious agents. protection offered to everyone in a community in order to decrease the likehood of potential breakdown to those who cannot get vaccinated
reasons behind epidemiology history of disease, spectrum, community health improvementin diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, increase in quality of health service
Created by: purespirit