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Chapter 19 GENE

Genetics Chapter 19 Human Heredity

Population A group of interbreeding organisms belonging to a single species
Gene Pool Set of genetic information carried by the members of a sexually reproducing population
Allelic Frequency Frequency of an allele is present in the population
Assumptions of Hardy Weinberg Large, random mating population free from all evolutionary forces, frequencies of alleles do not change over time, After one generation of random mating, the genotype frequencies will remain p2+2pq+q2
Evolutionary Forces Mutation, Migration, Selection, Drift, a few other minor
Classical model 1 allele is the best at a gene very little allelic variation
Balancing model Many alleles at each gene with many heterozygotes
Overdominance Where the heterozygotes are more fit than either homozygote, suggesting a high degree of variation in a population
Protein electrophoresis Could determine actual genotypes, did not prove balancing
Neutral- mutation hypothesis States that most variation is selectively neutral
Genetic Drift The random change in gene frequency due to change (Sewell Wright), only when population is really small
Effective Population size The average number of individuals in a population which contribute genes to succeeding generations.
Gene Flow: Three major effects A source of "new" genetic variation in populations, tends to increase the effective size of populations, increases the similarity of allele frequencies among populations
Created by: tstrange