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GEO 1090 Exam 3

Geologic Time, Mass Wasting, & Rivers

principle of uniformitarianism processes happening now happened before; large changes require a long time
principle of original horizontality sediment deposited horizontally; tilted rocks deformed by tectonics
principle of superposition younger formations on top
principle of lateral continuity form in lateral sheets; erosion dissects once continuous layers
principle of cross-cutting relations younger features cut older features
principle of inclusions inclusions always older than enclosing material; must be present to be included
principle of fossil succession index fossils determine time range
disconformity erosion, lack of deposition
angular unconformity relationship is angular
non-conformity sedimentary deposited on top of eroded igneous or metamorphic rocks
relative dating based on order of formation; younger or older
absolute dating actual number of years
Hadean Eon first; formation of Earth, molten core goes to center, oceans formed, meteorites
Archean Eon second; continents, lithosphere formed, meteorites stop, rock record survives, mats of cyanobacteria
Proterozoic Eon third; multi-cellular vertebrates appear
Phanerozoic Eon fourth; Permian extinction @ beginning; hard-shelled organisms (better records), Pangaea rifts apart
Mesozoic Era/Jurassic and Triassic Period Subduction sutures terrenes onto continent, collision build up Rockies, feathered birds, ancestors of mammals
Mesozoic Era/Cretaceous Period seas flood continents, modern fish, flowers
K-T boundary event Cretaceous-Tertiary, meteorite impacts, blots out sun -stops photosynthesis; evidence: plankton-free clay, iridium rich clay, micro tektites, buried crater visible
geologic column order eon - era - period - epoch
classification of mass-movements type of material, rate of movement, nature of mass, immediate surrondings
slides rotational/slump: concave; translational: whole block slides down
falls one chunk drops
flows debri flows: muddy, granular, lahar-style; creep: air freezes, grains pulled out, air warms, grains pulled down
factors of slope stability (8) water (adds weight, lubricates); steepen slope; remove base/top; add material to top (pipes, adds water); remove vegetation; tilted bedding planes; composition of slope; preexisting weaknesses
base level level below which stream cannot erode
discharge cfs
bedload sediment being transported
gradient slope
sinuosity curviness
too much discharge increase sinuosity, decrease gradient - lower discharge meandering stream
too much sediment decrease sinuosity, braided stream
Created by: haleybaker