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6 Science Chapter 6

chemistry the study of what substance are made of, and how one substance can be changed into another
matter anything that takes up space & has mass
weight a measure of the pull of gravity upon an object. can change from place to place
mass the amount of matter that makes up an object
density the amount of matter (mass) in one unit of volume (space)
atoms the tiny particles that make up matter
nucleus the tiny, extremely dense core of an atom
electrons tiny particles in an atom that circle the nucleus at tremendous speed
electron cloud the shield or cloud formed by fast-moving electrons in an atom that prevents other atoms from moving into the same space
neutrons one of the two kinds of particles that make up the nucleus of an atom; has a neutral charge
protons one of the two kinds of particles that make up the nucleus of an atom; has a positive charge
neutral lacking as electrical charge
shell a set of electrons in an atom that orbits the nucleus at roughly the same distance
atomic number the number of protons in an atom
element a substance that is composed of only one type of atom bonded together
compound a substance that is composed of more that one type of atom bonded together
periodic table of elements a chart constructed by Dmitri Mendedeev to arrange the elements in such a way as to group similar elements together
nickel a very hard metal that is used to make stainless, rechargable batteries, tanks to hold corrosive chemicals, and certain coins
chromium "chrome"; a shiny metal often applied to polished steel to prevent it from rusting
lead the denest of everyday metals; used to make car and track batteries, wheel weights, and firearms ammunition
zinc a metal often used to coat steel to prevent it from rusting; also used in flashlight batteries
sulfur an oderless, yellow solid called brimstone in the Bible; flammable and burns easily
carbon basic building block of ALL LIVING things; found in two forms, graphite and diamond
silicon a semimetal that is an ingrediant in sand, quartz, and glass; in pure form, used to make computer chips
phosphorus a waxlike solid with two forms, white and red
hydrogen the simplest atom with one proton and one electron which is also a colorless and odorless gas used in chemical factories and as a rocket fuel.
potassium a common alkali metal found in the rocks, soils, and oceans of the earth; does not occur naturally in pure form
magnesium a strong but lightweight alkali metal used in parts for airplanes and some cars
calcium the most common alkaline earth metal; an ingredient in calcium carbonate
sodium a common alkali metal that is as ingredient in table salt and lye; also used in street lights
metals the elements located to the left and center in the periodic table; most have a lustrous silvery color and are at room temperature
nonmetals the elements located at the right side of the periodic table; include many solids and several gases
halogens the elements in the next to last column of the periodic table; highly reactive, showing a tendency to form compounds with alkali and alkaline metals
sublime to turn directly from a solid to a gas (such as iodine does when heated)
noble gases the elements in the last column of the periodic table; are gases and do not combine with other elements except under very unusual circumstances
molecule a tiny group of two or more atoms that are bonded tightly together
molecular compound a compound that is composed of individual molecules
crystal a geometric arrangment of atoms
ionic compounds a compound composed of charged atoms or groups of atoms
chemical reaction a process in which atoms of elements or compounds are rearranged to form new substances
combustion burning; a chemical reaction in which a substance reacts rapidly with oxygen
plutonium the most abundant of the transuranium minerals
osmium the densest element
mercury the only metal that is liquid at room temperature
bromine a nonmetal (halogen) that is liquid at ordinary room temperatures and pressures
oxygen and nitrogen the main ingredients of air; together make up almost 99% of the earth's atmospere
iodine a halogen that sublimes instead of melts when heated; it is also added to salt.
diamond the hardest of all known substances
oxygen most abundant element at the surface of the earth
semimetals, nonmetals and metals three main groups of elements
Created by: Mrs_CC