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Environmental Planning

Water Quality Issues
surface water vs. groundwater
nitrogen A type of nutrient present in WW, the waste from domestic animals and fertilizers. Good in small quantities, bad if too much. Drinking water becomes hazardous when nitrogen exceeds 10 parts per million (ppm)
phosphorous Good in small quantities. Bad if too much. Too much = algae growth and algae blooms - threaten ecosystem and biodiversity. Phosphorous is present in both point (WW/pipelines/etc) and non-point (stormwater runoff, ag runoff) water sources
eutrophication Eutrophication refers to the impact of increased levels of nitrates and phosphorous upon aquatic ecosystems. This process can remove oxygen from the water, thereby threatening biodiversity.
fire flow requirements Commercial/Industrial = 3,500 gpm Residential = 1,500 gpm
Energy Consumption
Increase in gas consumption over 1990s Increased from 405 gallons per capita to 430 gallons per capita
Increase in house sizes Over last 50 years, average home sizes have increased from 1,100 sf to 2,340 sf
R-factor Rating of the energy system of a home. Better insulation = better R-factor. R-factor determined by fiberglass thickness and windowpanes
2 reasons for biodiversity loss 1) fragmentation and loss of habitat caused by human development; and 2) introduction of non-native species into habitats.
Wildlife Inventory (WI) Lists every plant/animal species within an area and includes as much info as possible on seasonal number changes. Mapping habitats, species, topo, and land management info. Maps help identify GAPS, which are species and habitats that need protection.
Noise 70-75 dBA = residential uses should be avoided. In residential areas w/ 60-70 dBA, windows should be permanently shut. dBA less than 60, no building restrictions. Many communities have max at 65 dBA. Contours help planners determine appropriate setbacks.
Soil classification Soil survey maps, which help determine the best possible use of land (res, ag, industry). Over 14,000 soil types.
Soil classification criteria weight-bearing capacity, shrink/swell, infiltration capacity, erodibility, slope, fertility (nutrients), seasonal high water table depth (deeper table depth = better drainage capacity).
Policies and Regulations
Clean Air Act (CAA) 1970. NAAQS attainment status of 6 air pollutants. NAAQS attainment status determines transportation and land use decisions to make attainment. Wind patterns/speed and temp affect ozone and air quality conditions
CAA Amendments 1990. Added 189 toxic air pollutants (specific to certain industries and sources. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI)
Clean Water Act (CWA) 1972. formerly known as the federal water pollution control act. Navigable waters. NPDES Permits. Monitors point sources. Section 404 of CWA - can't fill wetlands w/o a permit
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) 1974. applies to every public water system. NPDWRs = national primary drinking water regulations, place limitations on contaminants (maximum containment levels - MCLs)
U.S. Reclamation Act 1902. aka Newlands Act. Supplied water to arid western states. Constructed irrigation works for farmers and ag operations. Funded by the sale of public lands in the west
Wilderness Act 1964. Created the national wilderness preservation system (owned by federal gov.)
Wetlands Reserve Program Financial incentive for private landowners to protect, restore or improve wetlands on their property.
Endangered Species Act 1973. Public and private lands. Recovery plans. Dept. of Interior issues permits. Must consult w/ FWS for takings permit.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 1976. Regulates industrial waste. 3 programs: 1) manifest tracking system (tracks for 3 years); 2) municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill program; 3) underground storage tank program.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act 1980.CERCLA. Superfund Act. Haz waste sites. 4 programs: 1) $1.6 billion hazardous substance response fund; 2) Superfund liability schemes (litigation); 3) national contingency plan (NCP) - sites are ranked by severity; 4) Brownfields Program
Coastal Zone Management Act 1972. National coastal management program. voluntary. beach and dune management. federally funded.
Coastal Barrier Resources Act 1982. protects undeveloped barrier islands. feds won't provide funding to island that plan to develop in any way including funding for non-emergency response aid and flood insurance.
Development of Regional Impact (DRI) Large scale developments whose activities would impact the environment/ welfare of separate devs in other jurisdictions. Protects natural resources and wildlife habitats. 3 key aspects: 1) external planning; 2) internal planning; 3) long-term manag.
U.S. Soil Conservation Act 1935. Created natural resource conservation service (originally called the soil conservation service). Goal is to prevent soil erosion.
Energy Policy and Conservation Act 1975. Sets fuel standards for light duty trucks and passenger vehicles (CAFE standards) - corporate average fuel economy.
Energy Policy Act 1992.Conduct programs to improve energy efficiencies; increase the use of renewable energy; reduce environmental impacts; and foster economic growth
Energy Policy Act 2005. Act provides loan guarantees for entities that use innovative technologies that avoid the by-production of greenhouse gases. Another provision of the Act increases the amount of biofuel that must be mixed with gasoline sold in the United States
Toxic Substances Control Act 1976. EPA tracks the production or import of industrial chemicals within the US and to ban such chemicals if they are deemed too hazardous.
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act 1910. Regulates pesticide sale, use and distribution at the federal level. Must register with the EPA and get certified in order to buy and use pesticides.
Testing Wastewater
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) BOD testing examines the organic matter in WW "at a certain time and temp". Measures the amount of dissolved oxygen that is used as microbes break down organic matter. High BOD = low level of dissolved oxygen within WW (threat to water's biodiversity).
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) COD test measures the amount of dissolved oxygen that is necessary for organic matter w/in the water to chemically oxidize. COD tests are a better method for monitoring and controlling wastewater than BOD tests.
Solids testing Solids testing determine the amount of both inorganic and organic solids within the water. There are three classifications of solids: volatile solids; total suspended solids; and volatile suspended solids.
Created by: jlongabaugh