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Chap 8-12

An articulation where 2 or more bones meet regardless if there is movement possible can be classified structurally or functionally joint
An immovable joint formed when the gap between 2 bones ossifies and becomes essentially a single bone bony joint
Occurs when fibrous collagen fibers attaches adjacent bones together fibrous joint
Joint that consists of cartilage connecting the bones cartilaginous joint
Cartilage that covers the bones in a synovial joint Hyaline (Articular) Cartilage
A joint cavity lined by synovial membrane which contains synovial fluid and a capsule enclosing the joint cavity Synovial Joint
Ligaments around the synovial joint Reinforcing
Synovial joint that provides the greatest range of motion but the most unstable ball and socket
Ball and socket joint that has the greatest range of motion but is the most easily dislocated shoulder
Another word for dislocated subluxation
Joint that has a lesser range of motion than the shoulder joint but is harder to dislocate hip
Fibrocartilage in the knee that extends inward from the left and right but do not but do not entirely cross the joint meniscus
Attaches muscle to bone and most important structure in stabilizing a bone tendon
Sacs between structures which reduce friction during movement bursae
Consists of a fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane and a thin film containing synovial fluid bursa
Inflamed bursa bursitis
Essentially an elongated bursa tendon sheath
A movement in a synovial joint that decreases a joint angle flexion
A movement in a synovial joint that increases a joint angle extention
Extension of the foot dorsiflexion
Flexion of the foot plantar flexion
Joints going beyond the zero position hyperextension
The movement of a body part in the frontal plane away from the body abduction
The movement of a body part in the frontal plane towards the body adduction
When a bone spins on its longitudinal axis rotation
A movement that turns the palms to face anteriorly supination
A movement that turns the palms to face posteriorly Pronation
Dislocation of a joint luxation
Partial dislocation of a joint subluxation
Dislocations that are returned to their proper position reduction
Covers the entire muscle or portions of muscle fascia
Deep to the fascia and invaginates to wrap many muscle fibers into structures called fascicles
The connective tissue that wraps around the fascicles is called perimysium
Perimysium invaginates further to form the ____________ which wraps individual cells endomysium
Muscle that produces most of the force for a specific movement Agonist
A muscle that assists the prime mover (agonist) synergist
A muscle which holds a bone steady to prevent its movement which would otherwise affect attempted movements elsewhere fixator
Muscle cells that are also called muscle fibers because they are so long skeletal
Plasma membrane of muscle fibers sarcolemma
Called the sarcoplasm of muscle fibers cytoplasm
Each muscle fiber contains a large number of contractile elements called myofibrils
Exists as Myosin myofilament, actin, elastic filaments
Myofilaments help form the functional unit of muscle fibers called the sarcomere
Sarcomere length shortens which causes entire muscle to contract
Has striations within them that result froma repeating pattern of dark A and light I bands sarcomeres
Striations in the muscle fibers are formed from the pattern of __________ and _________ myosin, actin
The system that its general functions is to detect changes in the internal and external environments evaluate the information and initiate an appropriate response nervous
Anatomically makes up the central nervous system brain and spinal cord
Anatomically makes up the peripheral nervous system cranial and spinal nerves
Neurons that bring impulses from the periphery to the CNS sensory or afferent
Neurons that bring impulses from the CNS to the periphery motor or efferent
Neurons that lie between sensory and motor neurons Interneurons
The division that conveys impulses to the CNS sensory or afferent
The division that conveys impulses from the CNS motor or efferent
The efferent division that includes the somatic or voluntary system efferent
Controls the skeletal muscles somatic system
Controls the smooth and cardiac muscle and glands autonomic system
Have a cell body and cytoplasmic processes that are called axons and dendrites neurons
The biosynthetic and control center of the neuron cell body
Receptive sites that conduct the incoming signals from other neurons toward the cell body dendrites
Generate and conduct nerve impulses away from the cell body axons
Collection of cell bodies in the CNS nucleus
Collection of cell bodies in the PNS ganglion
Supporting cells which assist neurons in various ways neuroglia
Neuroglia that includes astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes CNS
Neuroglia that includes schwann cells and satellite cells PNS
Insulates and prevents "short-circuiting" formed in the PNS by Schwann cells and in the CNS by oligodendrocytes Myelin sheath
In the PNS the gaps between the myelin sheath which allow faster impulse transmission nodes of Ranvier
Fibers that course through supporting cells but their membranes are not wrapped unmyelinated
Neurons generate 2 types signals which flow along their membrane graded and action potentials
Potentials that are variable in intensity and decrease in strength with distance, they occur in dendrites and cell bodies graded
Potentials that are not variable in intensity and do not decrease in strength with distance they occur in all or nothing manner, occur in axons and are the same regardless of the specific neuron or the nature of its initiating stimulus action
The resting membrane potential of a neuron is -70 mV
Most common neuron in the body multipolar
The neuron that makes up the dorsal root ganglion unipolar
Bundle of nerve fibers called a ________ in the CNS tract
Bundle of nerve fibers called a ________ in the PNS nerve
Parts of the axon that release the neurotransmitter to control the next neuron and are either stimulatory or inhibitory terminal endings
Neurons which conduct impulses toward the synapse presynaptic
Neurons which conduct impulses away from the synapse postsynaptic
Time delay at the synapse due to its events and is the rate limiting step of impulse transmission synaptic delay
Postsynaptic potential depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane to various degrees by allowing positive ions thus attempting to initiate an impulse in the postsynaptic neuron excitatory
Postsynaptic potentials hyperpolarize the postsynaptic membrane to various degrees by allowing positive ions to leave or negative ions to enter thus attempting to inhibit an impulse from developing in the postsynaptic neuron inhibitory
Will determine if the neuron will generate an impulse at the axon hillock by passing threshold summation of the opposing 2 types
Effected by time or space time when there is a quick succession of impulses at one synapse delivering one type and space when there are more synapses delivering 1 type summation
___________ velocities vary among different neurons based on the diameter of the axon and its degree of mylenation conduction
An action potential passes along a PNS myelinated axon only at _______________ Nodes of Ranvier
Needs to experience voltage beyond threshold in order for their voltage gated channels to open and the impulse to self-propagate down the axon axon hillock
A combination of the chemical gradient (diffusion) and the electrical gradient (polarity) electrochemical gradient
The neuron signals are generated either by ____________ __________ channels or _________ ________ channels chemically gated, voltage gated
Channels that open and close in response to contact by a chemical therefore they exist at the synapse chemically gated
Channels that open and close in response to a change in its polar environment from the influx of Na+ and eflux K+ voltage gated
Channels that exist at and beyond the axon hillock voltage gated
The "on switch" which may generate an impulse emanating from that neuron axon hillock
Occurs when muscle changes in length but not in tension isotonic contraction
Occurs when the muscle changes in tension but not in length isometric contraction
1 of the main pathways of ATP synthesis which enables the cells to produce ATP in the absence of 02, produces lactic acid a major factor in muscle fatigue anaerobic fermentation
1 of the main pathways of ATP synthesis which requires a continual supply of 02, produces CO2 and H2O aerobic respiration
Continues after exercise to replenish the used up oxygen reserves as well to contribute to other chemical rxns heavy breathing
Created by: dnuculovic