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Chapter 13 GENE

Genetics Chapter 13 Human Heredity

Clones Genetically identical molecules, cells, or organisms all derived from single ancestor
Cloning The production of identical copies of molecule, cells, or organisms from a single ancestor
Charles Steward Grew individual carrot cells in the laboratory by using special nutrients
Callus Ball of undifferentiated cells
Embryo splitting After in vitro fertilization, early embryonic cells are divided and grown into clones
Nuclear transfer Cell fusion, enucleated eggs are fused with embryonic adult cells and grow into clones.
First clone horsish Mule, Horse is mother, Donkey is father
Problems with cloning Viability, lifespan, genetic regulation, epigenetic regulation.
Molecular cloning Technology was developed to clone segments of DNA molecules, based of restriction endonucleases, that recognize and cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences
Recombinant DNA Technology DNA that is created by combining two or more sequences that would not normally occur together
Things needed to clone DNA A way to cut DNA at specific sites, a carrier molecule to hold DNA for cloning, a place where the DNA can be copied
Restriction enzymes Bacterial enzymes that cut DNA at specific sites
Vectors Self- replicating DNA molecules used to transfer foreign DNA segments between host cells (plasmids or engineered viral chromosomes)
Plasmids used as vectors for cloning DNA
DNA ligase Joins recombinant DNA molecules
Genomis library A collection of clones that contain all the genetic information in an individual
Yeast artificial chromosome Cloning vector with telomeres and a centromere, carries DNA fragments up to 1 million bases long, uses eukaryote yeast as a host cell
Probe A labeled nucleic acid used to identify a complementary region in a clone of genome
PCR A method for amplifying DNA segments using cycles of denaturation, annealing to primers, and DNA polymerase- directed synthesis
Mullis Won Nobel Prize in 1993 for PCR, laser pointer story, LSD
Southern blotting
Created by: tstrange