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7th grade Chapter 5

Animal Movement

What is a skeleton? This is a framework that shapes and supports an animal, protects its internal organs, and allows it to move in its environment.
What are the three types of skeletons? 1. Skeletons without hard parts 2. Exoskeletons 3. Endoskeletons
What are skeletons without hard parts? These have fluid filled cavities surrounded by muscle, a tissue used in movement.
What are exoskeletons made of? Clams and scallop shells are mollusk exoskeletons made of calcium containing compounds. Arthropods have exoskeletons made of different substances.
What is molting? In order to grow, arthropods must shed their exoskeletons periodically and and produce new ones.
What are 2 disadvantages of exoskeletons? 1. They don't have cells so they can't grow. 2. They are heavy.
What are endoskeletons made of? 1. Sea stars have endoskeletons made of plates that contain calcium. 2. Sharks and other fish have endoskeletons made of cartilage. 3. Most other vertebrates have endoskeletons made mostly of bone with some cartilage.
What are 2 advantages of endoskeletons? 1. They are made of living cells so they can grow. 2. They are light.
What is a joint? A place where two or more parts of a skeleton meet. They allow movement to happen. Arthropods and vertebrates have them.
What is muscle? They are tissues that contract or relax to create movement.
Where are muscles located? Some are part of an organ. They attach to inside os exoskeletons and to the outside of bones or cartilage in endoskeletons.
True or false....muscles always work in pairs. True, when one muscle contracts, the other relaxes. Muscles never expand.
What is a nervous system? This receives information from the environment and coordinates a response. It acts like a body's control panel.
What does a nervous system do? It allows animals to detect signals in their environments, process signals, and react to them.
What is a stimulus? This is a signal that causes an animal to react in some way.
What is a response? This is an animal's reaction to a stimulus.
What is a neuron? This is a nerve cell with a unique structure for receiving and passing on information.
What is an impulse? Informations that travels as an electrical message in a nerve cell.
What are the three types of neurons that complex animals have? Sensory neurons, interneurons and motor neurons.
What are sensory neurons? These are nerve cells that detect stimuli.
What are interneurons? Theses are nerve cells that pass information between neurons.
What are motor neurons? These are nerve cells that carry response information to muscles and other organs.
What type of nervous system do cnidarians have? They have a nerve net. There are no specialized neurons, the impulses go in all directions. They do not have a brain.
What is a brain? This is an organized grouping of neurons in the head of an animal with bilateral symmetry.
What does a brain do? It receives information, interprets it, and controls an animal's response.
What type of nervous system does a planarian have? The nervous system has nerve cords formed from groups of interneurons.
What animals have nervous systems with brains? Arthropods, mollusks and vertebrates have these.
What are sense organs? These are organs that detect sound, light, odor and touch.
What are examples of sense organs? Examples are ears, eyes, nose and skin.
What causes animals to move? An animal moves about when it's nervous system, muscular system, and skeletal system work together to make movement happen.
Why do animals move? Animals move to obtain food, defend and protect themselves, maintain homeostasis and find mates.
How does an animal's systems work together to be able to move. 1. An animal's nervous system receives a signal from the environment. 2. Its nervous system processes the signal. 3. Its nervous system signals the muscles, which contract, causing the skeleton to move.
What adaptations do animals have for moving in water? They have streamlined bodies to help them move through water. They also have appendages for swimming. Fish have fins, dolphins have flippers, penguins have wings.
What is a water vascular system? This is a system of fluid filled tubes.
How does a water vascular system work?
What adaptations do animals have for moving on land? Many have legs, arms or something to grab. Ants have jointed appendages and snakes move by contracting their muscles and pushing against the ground with its body.
What adaptations do animals such as insects have for flying? Their wings grow from their exoskeleton and can move up, down, forward and backward. Birds are uniquely designed.
What is the only mammal that flies? The bat has wings that are made of thin skin and is stretched over the bay's long finger bones.
Created by: Bwolson