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Genetics: Species and Reproduction

alleles A different form of a gene.
codominant An inheritance pattern in which both alleles can be observed in a phenotype.
DNA The abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, an organism's genetic material.
dominant trait A genetic factor that blocks another genetic factor.
genes A section of DNA on a chromosome that has genetic information for one trait.
genetics The study of how traits are passed from parents to offspring.
genotype The alleles of all the genes on an organism's chromosomes; controls an organism's phenotype.
heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring.
heterozygous A genotype in which the two alleles of a gene are different.
homozygous Pairs of chromosomes that have genes for the same traits arranged in the same order.
Law of Independent Assortment Each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random.
Law of Segregation Members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair.
Mendelian genetics Shows a dominant and recessive relationship and genes are passed on from two parents (sexual reproduction).
mutation A permanent change in the sequence of DNA, or the nucleotides, in a gene or a chromosome.
nucleotide A molecule made of nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate group.
pedigree A way to track traits through multiple generations.
phenotype How a trait appears or is expressed.
polygenic inheritance An inheritance pattern in which multiple genes determine the phenotype of a trait.
Punnett Square A model that is used to show the probability of all possible genotypes and phenotypes of offspring.
recessive trait A genetic factor that is blocked by the presence of a dominant factor.
replication The process of copying a DNA molecule to make another DNA molecule.
RNA Ribonucleic Acid: A type of nucleic acid that carries the code for making proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
traits A characteristic feature or quality distinguishing a particular person or thing.
transcription The process of making mRNA from DNA.
translation The process of making a protein from RNA.
Created by: jfeltner