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Permanent Wave

Flash cards

The main active ingredient or reducing agent is Ammonium Thioglycolate
The main active ingredient in acid-balanced waving lotion is Glyceryl Monothioglycolate
The degree to which hair absorbs the waving lotion is related to its porosity
The action of waving lotion is to expand the hair
If hair breaks under very slight strain, it has little or no elasticity
A method of wrapping a permanent wave that is suitable for very long hair is the double tool technique
Keratin proteins are made of long chains of ________ linked together end-to-end like beads. amino acids
Hair texture describes the ________ of a single strand of hair and is classified as fine, medium, or coarse. diameter
Waves that process more quickly and produce firmer curls than true acid waves are considered to be acid-balanced
The perm that is activated by heat creatd chemically within the product is known as endothermic
Polypeptide chains are long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds
A perm activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood dryer is known as endothermic
Bonds that are formed when the sulfur atoms in two adjacent polypeptide chains are joined together are disulfide
The chemical action of _________ breaks the disulfide bonds and softens the hair. waving lotion
When the hair has assumed the desired shape, the broken disulfide bonds must be __________ rebonded. chemically
Straight rods are equal in diameter
________ rods have a small diameter in the center area and gradually increase to their largest diameter at the ends, resulting in a tighter curl at the ends, with a loose wider curl at the scalp. concave
What type of hair is more fragile, easier to process, and more susceptible to damage from perm services? fine texture
What type of hair requires more processing than medium or fine hair and also may be more resistant to processing? coarse texture
All perm wraps begin by sectioning the hair into panels which are further divided into subsections called base sections
Base control refers to the position of the tool in relation to its _________ and is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped. base panel
The basic perm wrap is also called a _________ wrap. straight set
The _________ wrap creates a movement that curves within sectioned-out panels. curvature perm
The _________ wrap uses zigzag partings to divide base areas. weave technique
When the strand of hair is wrapped at an angle 45 degrees beyond perpendicular to its base section, it will result in on-base placement
When the strand of hair is wrapped at an angle 90 degrees to its base section, it will result in half-off base placement
Ends wraps are absorbent papers used to ________ of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on the perm tools. control ends
When you place one end wrap on top of the hair strand and hold it flat, it is called the single flat wrap
When one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope, it is called the book end wrap
What can be used to determine the actual processing time needed to achieve optimum curl results when giving a perm for the first time on a client? preliminary test curl
If too many _________ bonds are broken in the perming process, the hair will be too weak to hold a firm curl. disulfide
Under-processing is caused by __________ processing time of the waving lotion. insufficient
In permanent waving, most of the processing takes place as soon as the solution penetrates the hair, within the first 5-10 minutes
The length of time required for the hair strands to absorb the waving lotion and for the hair to re-curl is called processing time
Always rinse perm solution from the hair for at least ______ minutes before applying the neutralizer. five
Some manufacturers recommend the application of a _______ after blotting and before application of the neutralizer. pre-neutralizing shampoo
Neutralization rebuilds the __________ by removing the extra hydrogen bonds created by the waving solution. disulfide bonds
If the hair is not _________ the hydrogen peroxide in the neutralizer can react with waving lotion and cause the hair to lighten. rinsed properly
Relatively weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between opposite charges are hydrogen bonds
An __________ liquid protein conditioner can be applied to the hair and dried under a warm dryer for 5 minutes or more prior to neutralization if hair is damaged. acidic
In neutralization, the bonds the hair are re-formed immediately
Chemical bonds that join amino acids together to form polypeptide chains are ___________ peptide
Metallic salts leave a coating on the hair that may cause _________, severe discoloration, or hair breakage. uneven curls
The measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows is known as viscosity
Perming only a section of a whole head of hair is called partial perming
The ________ wrap is used to prevent noticeable splits and to blend the flow of the hair. bricklay perm
The ________ wrap is done at an angle that causes the hair to spiral along the length of the tool, like the grip on a tennis racquet. spiral
When performing a procedure for a preliminary test curl, wrap one tool in each different area of the head, including the top, the sides, and the nape
In order to make a smooth transition from the rolled section of the head to an unrolled section, use a larger tool for the last tool next to an unrolled section when giving a partial perm
Many male clients are looking for added ________, fullness, style, and low maintenance that only a perm can provide. texture
Permanent waves that have a 7.0 or neutral pH; process at room temperature, and create firmer curls. acid-balanced waves
Also known as cold waves; have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate, as the reducing agent, and process at room temperature. alkaline waves
Compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur. amino acids
Perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia, so there is very little odor associated with their use. ammonia -free waves
Active ingredient or reducing agent in alkalive perms. ammonium thioglycolate
Position of the tool in relation to its base secton, determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped. base control
Also known as protective base cream; oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing. base cream
Angle at which the rod is positioned on the head(horizontally, vertically, or diagonally); also, the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped. base placement
Relaxers that require the application of protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer. base relaxers
Subsections of panels into which the hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod in normally placed on each base section. base sections
Also known as straight set wrap; perm wrapping pattern in which all the rods within in a panel move in the same direciton and are positioned on equal-sized bases; all the base sections are horizontal, and are the same length and width as the perm rod. basic perm wrap
Perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope. bookend wrap
Perm wrap similar to actual techinique of bricklaying; base sections are offset from each other row by row, to prevent noticeable splits and to blend the flow of the hair. bricklay permanent wrap
Perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends. concave rods
Perms in which the hair strands are wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers. croquignole perm wrap
Perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head. curvature perm wrap
Perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and another is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped. double flat wrap
Also known as piggyback wrap; a wrap technique whereby extra-long hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft, and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction. double-rod wrap
Also known as end wraps; absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding the hair on perm rods. end papers
Perm activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood-type dryer. endothermic waves
Create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up the waving process. exothermic waves
Main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions. glyceryl monothioglycolate
Base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees or perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is positioned half off its base section. half-off base placement
Created by: katie.ondeka