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Environmental Test

Water Pollution Test

Define Evaporation the change of a substance form a liquid to a gas
Define Precipitation any form of water that falls to Earth's surface from the clouds
How much water on the Earth is fresh water? 3%
How much water on the Earth is salt water? 97%
Of the freshwater, how much is available for drinking? about 30%
Define surface water water found on the surface
5 examples of surface water lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands, reservoirs
Surface water accumulates from ______________. Precipitation
Only ______ of the surface water is a stable source of drinking water. 1/3
_________ ____________ is a flowing network of water that flows into a river. river system
_________ is the area of land that is drained by a river. Watershed
_________ is water that seeps below the surface and stored underground. groundwater
Where does the majority of our drinking water come from? groundwater
_____ is the point at which rocks and soil are saturated. Water Table
________ is underground rock formations that store water. Aquifer
What is porosity? amount of space between the particles that make up rock
What is permeability? ability of rock to allow water to flow
What is the largest aquifer in the world? Ogallala
What is happening to Ogallala aquifer? we are taking out water faster than it can be replaced
__________ is the area where water percolates through the sediment back to the ground water supply. recharge zone
How long does it take for the water to percolate through the sediment in the recharge zone? 3ft/year
List three global water uses. Where is most of the fresh water used? agricultural, industrial, domestic agriculture is where most is used
How much water does the average person use everyday? 80 gallons
Most of the water indoors used by individuals is used for what two purposes? washing clothes and showers
Most of the individual outdoor water use is used for what purposes? car wash and watering lawn
What word means water is safe to drink? potable
List three things that water treatment processes remove sediments, toxins, and pathogens
Define pathogen disease causing organisms
What is the primary use of water in agriculture? to water crops-irrigation
What is the primary use of water in industries? cooling
List two ways that we get water to people in areas where water is in short supply water diversion and dams
What are problems with water diversion? rarely makes it all the way to the Gulf of California because water is diverted from it
What are problems with dams? people are displaced, ecosystems destroyed, dam failure, and rivers lose enriching sediment and land
List three ways that we might have a solution to water shortages desalinization, moving freshwater, water conservation
Compare point and non-point pollution point-can locate the source of pollution; non-point- cannot easily locate the source
Most pollution comes from what type of sources? about 96% non-point
list the five principle water pollutants pathogens, organic matter, organic chemicals, inorganic chemical, and heavy metals
How do pathogens enter the water? sewage and waste
How do we treat water for pathogens? add chlorine
List two ways that pesticides and fertilizers get into the water farms and chemical dump sites
How does gas/oil get into the water? runoff
How do heavy metals get into the water? industry and mining
How do suspended particles affect the water? makes the water cloudy where light cannot penetrate and photosynthesis is not able to take place
List two ways the thermo-pollution can cause problems kills fish and destroys aquatic ecosystems
Define eutrophication addition of organic substances that introduces nutrients into the water that causes algae to grow out of control causing bacteria to grow
which is hardest water to protect and clean? groundwater
85% of all ocean pollution comes form where? runoff
________ the accumulation of pollutants throughout the food chain biomagnification
what heavy metal accumulates in fish? mercury
What started the Clean Water Act of 1972? Cuyahoga River caught on fire
What is the goal of the Clean Water Act? "restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of nation's waters"
Know the 6 federal laws on water 1.Clean Water Act of 1972 2. Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 3. Safe Drinking Water Act of 1975 4. Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act of 1980 5. Water Quality Act of 1987 6. Oil Pollution Act of 1990
Created by: aemiller