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Biology 101 Exam 1

CH 3 3 of 4

What is denaturation? If a protein's environment is altered, the protein may change its shape or even unfold completely. This can happen when the pH, temperature, or ionic concentration of the surrounding solution changes.
What are the nucleic acids? A nucleotide polymer; chidf types are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is double stranded, and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which is typically single-stranded.
Describe the structure of nucleic acids. A chain of five-carbon sugars linked together by phosphodiester bonds with a nitrogenous base protruding from each sugar.
Compare and contrast RNA with DNA. DNA forms a double helix,uses deoxyribose as the sugar in sugar-phosphate backbone,and uses thymine among its nitrogenous bases.RNA is usually single stranded, uses ribose as the sugar in its sugar phosphate backbone,and uses uracil in place of thymine.
What are lipids? A nonpolar hydrophobic organic molecule that is insoluble in water (which is polar) but dissolves readily in nonpolar organic solvents; includes fats, oils, waxes, steroids, phospholipids, and carotenoids.
Describe phospholipids. Similar in structure to a fat, but having only two fatty acids attached to the glycerol backbone, the third space linked to a phosphorylated molecule.contains a polar hydrophilic"head"end(phosophate group)and nonpolar dydrophic "tail" end(fatty acids).
Fatty acids (1 type of Lipids) are long-chain hydrocarbons with a carboxylic acid (COOH) at one end. Two fatty acids are attached to the glycerol backbone in a phospholipid molecule.
Glycerol (2nd type of Lipids) Is a three-carbon polyalcohol (three - OH groups). Forms the backbone of the phospholipid molecule.
A phosphate group (3rd type of Lipids) (-PO4 2-) attached to one end of the glycerol. The charged phosphate group usually ahs a charged organic molecule linked to it, such as choline, ethanolamine, or the amino acid serine.
Created by: usn3gen